• 1
    Ginsberg RJ, Vokes EE, Rosenzweig K. Non small cell lung cancer. In: deVitaJR, HellmanS, RosenbergSR, eds. Cancer: Principles and practice of oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia , PA : Lippincott-Raven; 2001. p. 925983.
  • 2
    Jemal A, Murrray T, Samuels A, Ghafoor A, Ward E, Thum MJ. Cancer statistics, 2003. CA Cancer J Clin 2003; 53: 526.
  • 3
    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Collaborative Group. Chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis using updated data on individual patients from 52 randomized clinical trials. BMJ 1995; 311: 899909.
  • 4
    Breathnach OS, Freidlin B, Conley B, Green MR, Johnson DH, Gandara DR, O'Connell M, Shepherd FA, Johnson BE. Twenty-two years of phase III trials for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: sobering results. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 173442.
  • 5
    Schiller JH, Harrington D, Belani CP, Langer C, Sandier A, Krook J, Zhu J, Johnson DH. Comparison of four chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 928.
  • 6
    Heinemann V, Schulz L, Issels RD, Plunkett W. Gemcitabine: a modulator of intracellular nucleotide and deoxynucleotide metabolism. Semin Oncol 1995; 22 (4 Suppl 11): 118.
  • 7
    Huang P, Chubb S, Hertel LW, Grindey GB, Plunkett W. Action of 2′,2-dif-luorodeoxycytidine on DNA synthesis. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 61107.
  • 8
    Belt JA, Marina NM, Phelps DA, Crawford CR. Nucleoside transport in normal and neoplastic cells. Adv Enzyme Regul 1993; 33: 23552.
  • 9
    Griffith DA, Jarvis SM. Nucleoside and nucleobase transport systems of mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1996; 1286: 15381.
  • 10
    Baldwin SA, Mackey JR, Cass CE, Young JD. Nucleoside transporters: molecular biology and implications for therapeutic development. Mol Med Today 1999; 5: 21624.
  • 11
    Mackey JR, Mani RS, Seiner M, Mowles D, Young JD, Belt JA, Crawford CR, Cass CE. Functional nucleoside transporters are required for gemcitab-ine influx and manifestation of toxicity in cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 434957.
  • 12
    Gati WP, Paterson AR, Larratt LM, Turner AR, Belch AR. Sensitivity of acute leukemia cells to cytarabine is a correlate of cellular es nucleoside transporter site content measured by flow cytometry with SAENTA-fluores-cein. Blood 1997; 90: 34653.
  • 13
    1 Es nucleoside transporter content of acute leukemia cells: role in cell sensitivity to cytarabine (araC). Leuk Lymphoma 1998; 32: 4554.
  • 14
    Galmarini CM, Thomas X, Calvo F, Rousselot P, Jafaari AE, Cros E, Dumontet C. Potential mechanisms of resistance to cytarabine in AML patients. Leuk Res 2002; 26: 6219.
  • 15
    Wright AM, Paterson AR, Sowa B, Akabutu JJ, Grundy PE, Gati WP. Cytotoxicity of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine and arabinosylcytosine in leu-kaemic lymphoblasts from paediatric patients: significance of cellular nucleoside transporter content. Br J Haematol 2002; 116: 52837.
  • 16
    Dumontet C, Fabianowska-Majewska K, Mantincic D, Callet Bauchu E, Tigaud I, Gandhi V, Lepoivre M, Peters GJ, Rolland MO, Wyczechowska D, Fang X, Gazzo S, Voorn DA, Vanier-Viornery A, MacKey J. Common resistance mechanisms to deoxynucleoside analogues in variants of the human erythroleukaemic line K562. Br J Haematol 1999; 106: 7885.
  • 17
    Ruiz van Haperen VWT, Veerman G, Eriksson S, Boven E, Stegmann APA, Hermsen M, Vermorken JB, Pinedo HM, Peters GJ. Development and molecular characterization of a 2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine-resistant variant of the human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 413843.
  • 18
    Goan YG, Zhou B, Hu E, Mi S, Yen Y Overexpression of ribonucleotide re-ductase as a mechanism of resistance to 2,2-difluorodeoxycytidine in the human KB cancer cell line. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 42047.
  • 19
    van der Wilt CL, Kroep JR, Bergman AM, Loves WJP, Alvarez E, Talianidis I, van Groeningen CJ, Pinedo HM, Peters GJ. The role of deoxycytidine ki-nase in gemcitabine Cytotoxicity. Adv Exp Med Biol 2000; 486: 28790.
  • 20
    Owens JK, Shewach DS, Ullman B, Mitchell BS. Resistance to 1-beta-D-ara-binofuranosylcytosine in human T-lymphoblasts mediated by mutations within the deoxycytidine kinase gene. Cancer Res 1992; 52: 238993.
  • 21
    Flasshove M, Strumberg D, Ayscue L, Mitchell BS, Tirier C, Heit W, Seeber S, Schutte J. Structural analysis of the deoxycytidine kinase gene in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and resistance to cytosine arabinoside. Leukemia 1994; 8: 7805.
  • 22
    Veuger MJ, Bonders MW, Landegent JE, Willemze R, Barge RM. A novel RT-PCR-based protein activity truncation assay for direct assessment of deoxycytidine kinase in small numbers of purified leukemic cells. Leukemia 2000; 14: 167884.
  • 23
    Gourdeau H, Clarke ML, Ouellet F, Mowles D, Seiner M, Richard A, Lee N, Mackey JR, Young JD, Jolivet J, Lafreniere RG, Cass CE. Mechanisms of uptake and resistance to troxacitabine, a novel deoxycytidine nucleoside analogue, in human leukemic and solid tumor cell lines. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 721724.
  • 24
    Damaraju VL, Damaraju S, Young JD, Baldwin SA, Mackey J, Sawyer MB, Cass CE. Nucleoside anticancer drugs: the role of nucleoside transporters in resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Oncogene 2003; 22: 752436.
  • 25
    Mackey JR, Yao SY, Smith KM, Karpinski E, Baldwin SA, Cass CE, Young JD. Gemcitabine transport in Xenopus oocytes expressing recombinant plasma membrane mammalian nucleoside transporters. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 187681.
  • 26
    Bhalla K, Nayak R, Grant S. Isolation and characterization of a deoxycytidine kinase-deficient human promyelocytic leukemic cell line highly resistant to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Cancer Res 1984; 44: 502937.
  • 27
    Kees UR, Ford J, Dawson VM, Piall E, Aherne GW. Development of resistance to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine after high-dose treatment in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia: analysis of resistance mechanism in established cell lines. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 30159.
  • 28
    Bergman AM, Pinedo HM, Jongsma AP, Brouwer M, Ruiz van Haperen VW, Veerman G, Leyva A, Eriksson S, Peters GJ. Decreased resistance to gemcitabine (2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine) of cytosine arabinoside-resistant myeloblastic murine and rat leukemia cell lines: role of altered activity and substrate specificity of deoxycytidine kinase. Biochem Pharmacol 1999; 57: 397406.
  • 29
    Funato T, Satou J, Nishiyama Y, Fujimaki S, Miura T, Kaku M, Sasaki T. In vitro leukemia cell models of Ara-C resistance. Leuk Res 2000; 24: 53541.
  • 30
    Kroep JR, Loves WJ, van der Wilt CL, Alvarez E, Talianidis L, Boven E, Braakhuis BJ, van Groeningen CJ, Pinedo HM, Peters GJ. Pretreatment deoxycytidine kinase levels predict in vivo gemcitabine sensitivity. Mol Cancer Ther 2002; 1: 3716.
  • 31
    Mansson E, Flordal E, Liliemark J, Spasokoukotskaja T, Elford H, Lagercrantz S, Eriksson S, Albertioni F. Down-regulation of deoxycytidine kinase in human leukemic cell lines resistant to cladribine and clofarabine and increased ribonucleotide reductase activity contributes to fludarabine resistance. Biochem Pharmacol 2003; 65: 23747.
  • 32
    Mansson E, Spasokoukotskaja T, Sallstrom J, Eriksson S, Albertioni F. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of fludarabine and cladribine resistance in a human promyelocytic cell line. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 595663.
  • 33
    Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Wiemer EA, Kuijpers M, Pieters R, Sonneveld P. Absence of mutations in the deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) gene in patients with relapsed and/or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Leukemia 2001; 15: 8556.
  • 34
    Kakihara T, Fukuda T, Tanaka A et al. Expression of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) gene in leukemic cells in childhood: decreased expression of dCK gene in relapsed leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 1998; 31: 4059.