• Open Access

Correlation between liver metastasis of the colocalization of actin-related protein 2 and 3 complex and WAVE2 in colorectal carcinoma


To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: kiwaya@tokyo-med.ac.jp


Directed movement of normal cells occurs when actin-related protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) triggers the actin polymerization that forms lamellipodia immediately after binding to WAVE2. In order to determine whether the same mechanism correlates with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer, paired mirror sections of 154 cancer specimens (29 cases with liver metastasis and 125 cases without liver metastasis in which T factor, gender, primary tumor site, and age at operation were matched) were examined immunohistochemically for the localization of Arp2 and WAVE2. Expression of both Arp2 and WAVE2 was detected in the same cancer cells in 55 (35.7%) of the 154 cases, but not detected in the normal colonic epithelial cells. Univariate analysis showed that the colocalization was significantly predictive of liver metastasis (risk ratio [RR] 8.760. Likewise, histological grade (RR 2.46), lymphatic invasion (RR 9.95), and tumor budding (RR 4.00) were significant predictors. Among these, colocalization and lymphatic invasion were shown to be independent risk factors by multivariate analysis. Another 59 colorectal specimens were examined for mRNA expression of Arp2 by real time polymerase chain reaction. High mRNA levels of Arp2, that in situ hybridization revealed to be expressed by the cancer cells, were significantly associated with liver metastasis. However, its effect was absorbed by the influence of risk of the colocalization that is closely related to high expression of Arp2. These results indicate that the colocalization of Arp2 and WAVE2 is an independent risk factor for liver metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 992–999)