Effective doses of ionizing radiation during preoperative radiotherapy occasionally cause wound complications after subsequent surgery. The authors attempted to accelerate radiation-impaired wound healing in animal models. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhM-CSF), and an inhibitor of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 receptor kinase, SB431542, were injected s.c. into a full-thickness incisional wound site in the dorsal skin of rats after local irradiation of X-ray (30 Gy). Wound healing of irradiated skin was assessed using the breaking strength of the wound and histological analyses. The impaired wound healing in irradiated skin was found to be associated with impaired mobilization of bone marrow-derived cells and enhanced expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. The breaking strength of the wound in the irradiated skin was approximately one-eighth of that in the non-irradiated skin; however, following combined treatment with the above three compounds the breaking strength increased to approximately one-half of that in the non-irradiated skin. Histological analysis of the wounded skin revealed an increase in formation of collagen fibers and the panniculus carnosus following the combined treatment. Moreover, the increased breaking strength was associated with an increase in a subpopulation of fibrocytes (collagen I/ED1 double positive cells). These findings suggested that a combined treatment with rhG-CSF, rhM-CSF, and SB431542 is promising as a means of improving radiation-impaired wound healing. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1021–1028)