The clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen may be influenced by the activity of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme because tamixifen is metabolized by CYP2D6 to its active forms of antiestrogenic metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen. We investigated the predictive value of the CYP2D6*10 allele, which decreased CYP2D6 activity, for clinical outcomes of patients that received adjuvant tamoxifen monotherapy after surgical operation on breast cancer. Among 67 patients examined, those homozygous for the CYP2D6*10 alleles revealed a significantly higher incidence of recurrence within 10 years after the operation (P = 0.0057; odds ratio, 16.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.75–158.12), compared with those homozygous for the wild-type CYP2D6*1 alleles. The elevated risk of recurrence seemed to be dependent on the number of CYP2D6*10 alleles (P = 0.0031 for trend). Cox proportional hazard analysis demonstrated that the CYP2D6 genotype and tumor size were independent factors affecting recurrence-free survival. Patients with the CYP2D6*10/*10 genotype showed a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival period (P = 0.036; adjusted hazard ratio, 10.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.17–86.27) compared to patients with CYP2D6*1/*1 after adjustment of other prognosis factors. The present study suggests that the CYP2D6 genotype should be considered when selecting adjuvant hormonal therapy for breast cancer patients. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 995–999)