• 1
    Jemal A, Tiwari RC, Murray T et al. Cancer statistics, 2004. CA Cancer J Clin 2004; 54: 829.
  • 2
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55: 74108.
  • 3
    Correale P, Fulfaro F, Marsili S et al. Gemcitabine (GEM) plus oxaliplatin, folinic acid, and 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX-4) in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2005; 56: 5638.
  • 4
    Koutras AK, Gerolymos MK, Kontogeorgou E et al. Phase II study of irinotecan plus leucovorin and bolus 5-fluorouracil as first- or second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric or esophageal-gastric junction adenocarcinoma. J Chemother 2007; 19: 72430.
  • 5
    Ohtsu A. Chemotherapy for metastatic gastric cancer: past, present, and future. J Gastroenterol 2008; 43: 25664.
  • 6
    Hironaka S, Zenda S, Boku N, Fukutomi A, Yoshino T, Onozawa Y. Weekly paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer 2006; 9: 148.
  • 7
    Krasilnikov MA. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase dependent pathways: the role in control of cell growth, survival, and malignant transformation. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000; 65: 5967.
  • 8
    Huang S, Shu L, Dilling MB et al. Sustained activation of the JNK cascade and rapamycin-induced apoptosis are suppressed by p53/p21(Cip1). Mol Cell 2003; 11: 1491501.
  • 9
    Mondesire WH, Jian W, Zhang H et al. Targeting mammalian target of rapamycin synergistically enhances chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 703142.
  • 10
    Kamata S, Kishimoto T, Kobayashi S, Miyazaki M, Ishikura H. Possible involvement of persistent activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in the cisplatin resistance of AFP-producing gastric cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther 2007; 6: 103643.
  • 11
    Cejka D, Preusser M, Fuereder T et al. mTOR inhibition sensitizes gastric cancer to alkylating chemotherapy in vivo. Anticancer Res 2008; 28: 38018.
  • 12
    Yashiro M, Chung YS, Nishimura S, Inoue T, Sowa M. Establishment of two new scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines: analysis of factors associated with disseminated metastasis. Br J Cancer 1995; 72: 120010.
  • 13
    Takemura S, Yashiro M, Sunami T, Tendo M, Hirakawa K. Novel models for human scirrhous gastric carcinoma in vivo. Cancer Sci 2004; 95: 893900.
  • 14
    Drewinko B, Green C, Loo TL. Combination chemotherapy in vitro with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II). Cancer Treat Rep 1976; 60: 161925.
  • 15
    Zhang X, Yashiro M, Ren J, Hirakawa K. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, increases the chemosensitivity of anticancer drugs in gastric cancer cell lines. Oncol Rep 2006; 16: 5638.
  • 16
    Pfaffl MW. A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 2001; 29: e45.
  • 17
    Otsuji E, Kuriu Y, Okamoto K et al. Outcome of surgical treatment for patients with scirrhous carcinoma of the stomach. Am J Surg 2004; 188: 32732.
  • 18
    Sakuramoto S, Sasako M, Yamaguchi T et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 181020.
  • 19
    Mabuchi S, Altomare DA, Cheung M et al. RAD001 inhibits human ovarian cancer cell proliferation, enhances cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and prolongs survival in an ovarian cancer model. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13: 426170.
  • 20
    Osaki M, Tatebe S, Goto A, Hayashi H, Oshimura M, Ito H. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cell lines: role of the p53 gene. Apoptosis 1997; 2: 2216.
  • 21
    Lin HL, Liu TY, Wu CW, Chi CW. 2-Methoxyestradiol-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis occurs through G(2)/M arrest dependent and independent pathways in gastric carcinoma cells. Cancer 2001; 92: 5009.
  • 22
    Huang S, Liu LN, Hosoi H, Dilling MB, Shikata T, Houghton PJ. p53/p21(CIP1) cooperate in enforcing rapamycin-induced G(1) arrest and determine the cellular response to rapamycin. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 337381.
  • 23
    Law M, Forrester E, Chytil A et al. Rapamycin disrupts cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase/p21/proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes and cyclin D1 reverses rapamycin action by stabilizing these complexes. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 107080.
  • 24
    Heggie GD, Sommadossi JP, Cross DS, Huster WJ, Diasio RB. Clinical pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil and its metabolites in plasma, urine, and bile. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 22036.
  • 25
    Spiegelman S, Sawyer R, Nayak R, Ritzi E, Stolfi R, Martin D. Improving the anti-tumor activity of 5-fluorouracil by increasing its incorporation into RNA via metabolic modulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980; 77: 496670.
  • 26
    Feliu J, Mel R, Borrega P et al. Phase II study of a fixed dose-rate infusion of gemcitabine associated with uracil/tegafur in advanced carcinoma of the pancreas. Ann Oncol 2002; 13: 175662.