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Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a member of the cold shock protein family and functions in transcription and translation. Many reports indicate that YB-1 is highly expressed in tumor cells and is a marker for tumor aggressiveness and clinical prognosis. Here, we show clear evidence that YB-1 is expressed in the angiogenic endothelial cells of various tumors, such as glioblastoma, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, and lung cancer, as well as in tumor cells. YB-1 was highly expressed in glomeruloid microvascular endothelial cells of brain tumors and microvessels in the desmoplastic region around multiple solid tumors. On the other hand, no or low YB-1 expression was observed in normal angiogenic endothelial cells from fetal kidney, newborn lung, and placenta. The endothelial cells in inflammatory regions of granulomas were also weakly labeled. Knockdown of YB-1 expression by small-interfering RNA induced G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibited the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated by growth factors. Taken together, YB-1 plays an important role in the growth of not only tumor cells but also tumor-associated endothelial cells, suggesting that YB-1 is a promising target for cancer therapy. (Cancer Sci 2010)