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Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is presently proposed to correlate with various human cancers and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at miRNA genes can influence the maturation of miRNAs or miRNA-mediated transcriptional regulation. However, whether miRNAs SNP alter gastric cancer susceptibility is still unclear. Here we investigated the possible role of a common A/G polymorphism (rs895819) within hsa-mir-27a in the development or progression of gastric cancer, and assessed the effect of rs895819 on the expression of miR-27a and its target gene Zinc finger and BTB domain containing 10 (ZBTB10). In the present case-control study, we found that subjects with the variant genotypes (AG + GG) showed a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer relative to AA carriers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.05; = 0.019). The elevated risk was especially evident in older subjects (age >58 years), men, nonsmokers and rural subjects. A significant association of hsa-mir-27a variant genotypes with lymph node metastasis was also observed. Further functional analyses indicated that variant genotypes might be responsible for elevated miR-27a levels and reduced ZBTB10 mRNA. Moreover, an inverse correlation was found between ZBTB10 and miR-27a levels. In conclusion, we were the first to show that a common polymorphism (rs895819) in hsa-mir-27a, by modulating miR-27a and ZBTB10 levels, acted as an important factor of the gastric cancer susceptibility. (Cancer Sci 2010)