Tumor development induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) plus 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a well-characterized model of multistep carcinogenesis. DMBA mutates the Ha-ras gene, whereas TPA promotes the growth of transformed cells by activating cellular signaling molecules. It remains to be clarified how repeated TPA treatment endows transformed cells with autonomous cell growth. Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (L1) is an endogenous retroelement, and 80–100 copies of L1 function as autonomous mobile elements. Although the L1 retrotransposition (RTP) has been found in various human tumors, implying the possible mobility of L1 during carcinogenesis, little is known about how L1-RTP arises in tumor cells, owing to a lack of experimental models. To dissect the mechanism of L1-RTP during carcinogenesis, we established a line of transgenic mice carrying human L1 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (hL1-EGFP mice) and subjected them to DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis. Of 15 skin tumors examined, 13 were positive for L1-RTP; L1-RTP was not detected in normal skin tissues adjacent to the tumors. Moreover, nine L1-RTP-positive tumors were positive for activated Ha-ras, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed cells positive for both L1-RTP and phosphorylated Stat3, a marker of tumor cells. Additional in vivo experiments suggested that L1-RTP occurred during tumor promotion by TPA. This is the first report on the involvement of L1-RTP in chemical carcinogenesis. We propose hL1-EGFP mice as a versatile system for investigating the mode of L1-RTP in tumor development and discuss the possible role of L1-RTP in tumorigenesis. (Cancer Sci 2011; 102: 2000–2006)