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Small non-mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with ALK immunoreactivity: a novel ALK fusion gene?

  1. Top of page
  2. Small non-mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with ALK immunoreactivity: a novel ALK fusion gene?
  3. Nucleostemin and TWIST as predictive markers for recurrence after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal carcinoma
  4. Notch1 receptor as a marker of lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer

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Page 390–92

In the first reported case of its kind, Yamamoto and colleagues present a case of small non-mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) immunohistochemically positive for ALK. The authors discovered the ALK-positive BAC during their study of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma in young patients. In contrast to the invasive or advanced cancers found in all previously reported cases of ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancers, BAC is a preinvasive lesion with a proposed classification of adenocarcinoma in situ. Previous reports of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma have demonstrated either EML4-ALK or KIF5B-ALK fusion genes, yet examination of the present case with fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed no EML4-ALK and KIF5B-ALK fusion genes. Although the histology of the ALK-positive BAC differed from those of EML4-ALK and KIF5B-ALK adenocarcinomas, the pattern observed in the BAC is present in EML4-ALK adenocarcinoma with mixed subtypes, suggesting that the case of ALK-positive BAC might be an early lesion of EML4-ALK adenocarcinoma. The authors suggest that a novel ALK fusion gene may play a role in BAC development.

Nucleostemin and TWIST as predictive markers for recurrence after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

  1. Top of page
  2. Small non-mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with ALK immunoreactivity: a novel ALK fusion gene?
  3. Nucleostemin and TWIST as predictive markers for recurrence after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal carcinoma
  4. Notch1 receptor as a marker of lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer

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Page 233–38

The survival rate for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma following standard therapy is very low, identified by one report as 43% for 2-year survival. In an effort to improve the selection of postoperative adjuvant therapies, Nakajima and colleagues sought to identify predictive markers for postoperative recurrence. The researchers examined 54 surgically resected specimens of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis of cancer stem cell markers and EMT markers revealed a strong correlation between postoperative recurrence and high nucleostemin expression, strong TWIST intensity and advanced pathological N stage. The authors have previously shown that cells with elevated levels of nucleostemin exhibit greater expression of TWIST, enhanced radioresistance and an increased propensity to metastasize. The results suggest that nucleostemin and TWIST might be predictive markers for postoperative recurrence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and that recurrence might be related to the fraction of chemo-resistant cancer stem cells that remain after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Notch1 receptor as a marker of lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer

  1. Top of page
  2. Small non-mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with ALK immunoreactivity: a novel ALK fusion gene?
  3. Nucleostemin and TWIST as predictive markers for recurrence after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal carcinoma
  4. Notch1 receptor as a marker of lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer

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Page 305–09

Most studies of thyroid cancer have focused on medullary thyroid cancer, despite the higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Park and colleagues sought to elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics of PTC with a focus on the expression of the Notch1 and Notch3 receptors and the B-type Raf kinase mutation (BRAFV600E). Notch can function as an oncogene or as a tumor suppressor, depending on the type of malignancy. While studies have shown that Notch might act as a tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer, its role in PTC remains unclear. Similarly, the role of BRAFV600E, which is commonly observed in thyroid cancer, remains unclear with regards to PTC. Park and colleagues report a significant association between Notch1 receptor expression and poor prognostic markers such as large tumor size and nodal metastasis. No significant associated was found between clinicopathological characteristics and Notch3 receptor expression or BRAFV600E mutation. The authors suggest that Notch1 receptor expression might be a predictor of lymph node metastases in PTC.