• Open Access

Prostate cancer genomics, biology, and risk assessment through genome-wide association studies

Authors


To whom correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: hidewaki@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common malignancy observed in men. It is evident that genetic factors play some important roles in PC etiology. Recently, genome-wide association studies in diverse ethnic groups have identified more than 40 germline variants of various genes or chromosomal loci that are significantly associated with PC susceptibility, including multiple 8q24 loci, prostate-specific genes, metabolic and hormone-related genes, and many regions where no coding gene is annotated. However, there are only a few variants or genes for which biological significance or functions have been elucidated so far. The greatest challenge related to genome-wide association studies loci in prostate genomics is to understand the functional consequences of these PC-associated loci and their involvement in PC biology and carcinogenesis. There have been attempts to determine PC risk estimations by combining multiple PC-associated variants for clinical tests, and these can identify a very minor population with high risk of PC. However, they cannot distinguish risk of aggressive PC from that of non-aggressive PC. Further identification of PC-susceptibility loci in larger genome-wide association studies cohorts and biological insights gained from such functional analyses have the potential to translate into clinical benefits, including the development of reliable biomarkers, risk estimation, and effective strategies for screening and prevention of PC. (Cancer Sci 2012; 103: 607–613)

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