• 1
    Zitvogel L, Tesniere A, Kroemer G. Cancer despite immunosurveillance: immunoselection and immunosubversion. Nat Rev Immunol 2006; 6: 71527.
  • 2
    Uyttenhove C, Pilotte L, Theate I et al. Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanism based on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Nat Med 2003; 9: 126974.
  • 3
    Mellor AL, Munn DH. IDO expression by dendritic cells: tolerance and tryptophan catabolism. Nat Rev Immunol 2004; 4: 76274.
  • 4
    Frumento G, Rotondo R, Tonetti M, Damonte G, Benatti U, Ferrara GB. Tryptophan-derived catabolites are responsible for inhibition of T and natural killer cell proliferation induced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. J Exp Med 2002; 196: 45968.
  • 5
    Okamoto A, Nikaido T, Ochiai K et al. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase serves as a marker of poor prognosis in gene expression profiles of serous ovarian cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 60309.
  • 6
    Ino K, Yoshida N, Kajiyama H et al. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is a novel prognostic indicator for endometrial cancer. Br J Cancer 2006; 95: 155561.
  • 7
    Brandacher G, Perathoner A, Ladurner R et al. Prognostic value of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in colorectal cancer: effect on tumor-infiltrating T cells. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12: 114451.
  • 8
    Ninomiya S, Hara T, Tsurumi H et al. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in tumor tissue indicates prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. Ann Hematol 2010; 90: 40916.
  • 9
    Yoshikawa T, Hara T, Tsurumi H et al. Serum concentration of l-kynurenine predicts the clinical outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. Eur J Haematol 2010; 84: 3049.
  • 10
    Muller AJ, DuHadaway JB, Donover PS, Sutanto-Ward E, Prendergast GC. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an immunoregulatory target of the cancer suppression gene Bin1, potentiates cancer chemotherapy. Nat Med 2005; 11: 3129.
  • 11
    Hou DY, Muller AJ, Sharma MD et al. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in dendritic cells by stereoisomers of 1-methyl-tryptophan correlates with antitumor responses. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 792801.
  • 12
    Lob S, Konigsrainer A, Rammensee HG, Opelz G, Terness P. Inhibitors of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase for cancer therapy: can we see the wood for the trees? Nat Rev Cancer 2009; 9: 44552.
  • 13
    Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng X. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2002; 42: 2554.
  • 14
    Yang CS, Wang X, Lu G, Picinich SC. Cancer prevention by tea: animal studies, molecular mechanisms and human relevance. Nat Rev Cancer 2009; 9: 42939.
  • 15
    Shimizu M, Deguchi A, Lim JT, Moriwaki H, Kopelovich L, Weinstein IB. (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E inhibit growth and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 signaling pathways in human colon cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 273546.
  • 16
    Shimizu M, Deguchi A, Joe AK, McKoy JF, Moriwaki H, Weinstein IB. EGCG inhibits activation of HER3 and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human colon cancer cells. J Exp Ther Oncol 2005; 5: 6978.
  • 17
    Shimizu M, Deguchi A, Hara Y, Moriwaki H, Weinstein IB. EGCG inhibits activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in human colon cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 334: 94753.
  • 18
    Shirakami Y, Shimizu M, Tsurumi H, Hara Y, Tanaka T, Moriwaki H. EGCG and polyphenon E attenuate inflammation-related mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS. Mol Med Report 2008; 1: 35561.
  • 19
    Shimizu M, Shirakami Y, Sakai H et al. (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses azoxymethane-induced colonic premalignant lesions in male C57BL/KsJ–db/db mice. Cancer Prev Res 2008; 1: 298304.
  • 20
    Pretlow TP, O'Riordan MA, Somich GA, Amini SB, Pretlow TG. Aberrant crypts correlate with tumor incidence in F344 rats treated with azoxymethane and phytate. Carcinogenesis 1992; 13: 150912.
  • 21
    Bird RP. Role of aberrant crypt foci in understanding the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Cancer Lett 1995; 93: 5571.
  • 22
    Xiao H, Hao X, Simi B et al. Green tea polyphenols inhibit colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and prevent oncogenic changes in dysplastic ACF in azoxymethane-treated F344 rats. Carcinogenesis 2008; 29: 1139.
  • 23
    Jeong YI, Jung ID, Lee JS, Lee CM, Lee JD, Park YM. (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in murine dendritic cells: evidences for the COX-2 and STAT1 as potential targets. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007; 354: 10049.
  • 24
    Cheng CW, Shieh PC, Lin YC et al. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an immunomodulatory protein, is suppressed by (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate via blocking of gamma-interferon-induced JAK-PKC-delta-STAT1 signaling in human oral cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2010; 58: 88794.
  • 25
    Yamada Y, Yoshimi N, Hirose Y et al. Sequential analysis of morphological and biological properties of beta-catenin-accumulated crypts, provable premalignant lesions independent of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 18748.
  • 26
    Shimizu M, Sakai H, Shirakami Y et al. Preventive effects of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate on diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumorigenesis in obese and diabetic C57BL/KsJ–db/db mice. Cancer Prev Res 2011; 4: 396403.
  • 27
    Wang ZY, Agarwal R, Bickers DR, Mukhtar H. Protection against ultraviolet B radiation-induced photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice by green tea polyphenols. Carcinogenesis 1991; 12: 152730.
  • 28
    Moolenbeek C, Ruitenberg EJ. The “Swiss roll”: a simple technique for histological studies of the rodent intestine. Lab Anim 1981; 15: 579.
  • 29
    Bird RP. Observation and quantification of aberrant crypts in the murine colon treated with a colon carcinogen: preliminary findings. Cancer Lett 1987; 37: 14751.
  • 30
    Suzuki R, Kohno H, Yasui Y et al. Diet supplemented with citrus unshiu segment membrane suppresses chemically induced colonic preneoplastic lesions and fatty liver in male db/db mice. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 2528.
  • 31
    Sakai H, Yamada Y, Shimizu M, Saito K, Moriwaki H, Hara A. Genetic ablation of Tnfalpha demonstrates no detectable suppressive effect on inflammation-related mouse colon tumorigenesis. Chem Biol Interact 2010; 184: 42330.
  • 32
    Hoshi M, Saito K, Hara A et al. The absence of IDO upregulates type I IFN production, resulting in suppression of viral replication in the retrovirus-infected mouse. J Immunol 2010; 185: 330512.
  • 33
    Suzuki Y, Suda T, Furuhashi K et al. Increased serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio correlates with disease progression in lung cancer. Lung Cancer 2010; 67: 3615.
  • 34
    Fujigaki S, Saito K, Sekikawa K et al. Lipopolysaccharide induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is mediated dominantly by an IFN-gamma-independent mechanism. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31: 23138.
  • 35
    Fujigaki S, Saito K, Takemura M et al. The l-Tryptophan–l-kynurenine pathway metabolism accelerated by Toxoplasma gondii infection is abolished in gamma interferon-gene-deficient mice: cross-regulation between inducible nitric oxide synthase and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase. Infect Immun 2002; 70: 77986.
  • 36
    Shimizu M, Shirakami Y, Iwasa J et al. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in male C57BL/KsJ–db/db mice. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15: 306875.
  • 37
    Yasuda Y, Shimizu M, Shirakami Y et al. Pitavastatin inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in C57BL/KsJ–db/db obese mice. Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 17017.
  • 38
    Katz JB, Muller AJ, Prendergast GC. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in T-cell tolerance and tumoral immune escape. Immunol Rev 2008; 222: 20621.
  • 39
    Dolusic E, Larrieu P, Moineaux L et al. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibitors. 3-(2-(pyridyl)ethenyl)indoles as potential anticancer immunomodulators. J Med Chem 2011; 54: 532034.
  • 40
    Carlin JM, Borden EC, Sondel PM, Byrne GI. Interferon-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in human mononuclear phagocytes. J Leukoc Biol 1989; 45: 2934.
  • 41
    Takikawa O, Tagawa Y, Iwakura Y, Yoshida R, Truscott RJ. Interferon-gamma-dependent/independent expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Studies with interferon-gamma-knockout mice. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999; 467: 5537.
  • 42
    von Bergwelt-Baildon MS, Popov A, Saric T et al. CD25 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase are up-regulated by prostaglandin E2 and expressed by tumor-associated dendritic cells in vivo: additional mechanisms of T-cell inhibition. Blood 2006; 108: 22837.
  • 43
    Basu GD, Tinder TL, Bradley JM et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor enhances the efficacy of a breast cancer vaccine: role of IDO. J Immunol 2006; 177: 2391402.
  • 44
    Shimizu K, Kinouchi Shimizu N, Hakamata W, Unno K, Asai T, Oku N. Preventive effect of green tea catechins on experimental tumor metastasis in senescence-accelerated mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2010; 33: 11721.
  • 45
    Chung KT, Gadupudi GS. Possible roles of excess tryptophan metabolites in cancer. Environ Mol Mutagen 2011; 52: 81104.
  • 46
    Koblish HK, Hansbury MJ, Bowman KJ et al. Hydroxyamidine inhibitors of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase potently suppress systemic tryptophan catabolism and the growth of IDO-expressing tumors. Mol Cancer Ther 2010; 9: 48998.
  • 47
    Munn DH, Sharma MD, Mellor AL. Ligation of B7-1/B7-2 by human CD4+ T cells triggers indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in dendritic cells. J Immunol 2004; 172: 410010.
  • 48
    Raju J. Azoxymethane-induced rat aberrant crypt foci: relevance in studying chemoprevention of colon cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 66325.
  • 49
    Gupta AK, Pretlow TP, Schoen RE. Aberrant crypt foci: what we know and what we need to know. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 52633.
  • 50
    Mori H, Hata K, Yamada Y, Kuno T, Hara A. Significance and role of early-lesions in experimental colorectal carcinogenesis. Chem Biol Interact 2005; 155: 19.
  • 51
    Yasui Y, Suzuki R, Kohno H et al. 9trans,11trans conjugated linoleic acid inhibits the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats. Nutr Cancer 2007; 59: 8291.
  • 52
    Eleftheriadis T, Antoniadi G, Liakopoulos V, Stefanidis I, Galaktidou G. Plasma indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase concentration is increased in hemodialysis patients and may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease. Renal Fail 2012; 34: 6872.