BCX1777 (forodesine), a novel purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor, induces apoptosis, mainly in T cells. To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of BCX1777, we conducted a phase I study in patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T/natural killer-cell malignancies. Eligible patients had relapsed or refractory peripheral T/natural killer-cell malignancies without any major organ dysfunction. BCX1777 was administered orally once daily (dose escalation: 100, 200, and 300 mg) until disease progression requiring new therapy or unacceptable adverse events occurred. A total of 13 patients were enrolled and treated in three dose cohorts (100 mg/day, five patients; 200 mg/day, three patients; 300 mg/day, five patients). Although none of the patients developed dose-limiting toxicities, further dose escalation was not performed based on data from overseas. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose was not determined. Adverse events of grade 3 or greater (≥2 patients) included lymphopenia (62%), anemia (15%), leukopenia (8%), and pyrexia (8%). Plasma pharmacokinetics parameter of BCX1777 (area under the plasma concentration-time curve) at day 1 in each cohort was 1948 ± 884, 4608 ± 1030, and 4596 ± 939 ng•h/mL, respectively. Disease control was achieved in approximately half of patients. One patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which was negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase, achieved a complete response, and two patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma achieved partial responses. BCX1777 was well tolerated at doses up to 300 mg once daily and showed preliminary evidence of activity in relapsed or refractory peripheral T/natural killer-cell malignancies, warranting further investigation. (Cancer Sci 2012; 103: 1290–1295)