• 1
    Cohen JI. Epstein–Barr virus infection. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 48192.
  • 2
    Williams H, Crawford DH. Epstein–Barr virus: the impact of scientific advances on clinical practice. Blood 2006; 107: 8629.
  • 3
    Rickinson AB, Kieff E. Epstein–Barr virus. In: Knipe DM, Howly PM, eds. Virology, 5th edn. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006; 2655700.
  • 4
    Oshimi K. Progress in understanding and managing natural killer-cell malignancies. Br J Haematol 2007; 139: 53244.
  • 5
    Cohen JI, Kimura H, Nakamura S, Ko YH, Jaffe ES. Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease in non-immunocompromised hosts: a status report and summary of an international meeting, 8–9 September 2008. Ann Oncol 2009; 20: 147282.
  • 6
    Kawa K, Okamura T, Yagi K, Takeuchi M, Nakayama M, Inoue M. Mosquito allergy and Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Blood 2001; 98: 31734.
  • 7
    Kimura H, Hoshino Y, Kanegane H et al. Clinical and virologic characteristics of chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection. Blood 2001; 98: 2806.
  • 8
    Kimura H. Pathogenesis of chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection: is this an infectious disease, lymphoproliferative disorder, or immunodeficiency? Rev Med Virol 2006; 16: 25161.
  • 9
    Ohshima K, Kimura H, Yoshino T et al. Proposed categorization of pathological states of EBV-associated T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) in children and young adults: overlap with chronic active EBV infection and infantile fulminant EBV T-LPD. Pathol Int 2008; 58: 20917.
  • 10
    Quintanilla-Martinez L, Kimura H, Jaffe ES. EBV+ T-cell lymphoma of childhood. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL et al., eds. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th edn. Lyon: WHO Press, 2008; 27880.
  • 11
    Park S, Lee DY, Kim WS, Ko YH. Primary cutaneous Epstein–Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder: 2 cases with unusual, prolonged clinical course. Am J Dermatopathol 2010; 32: 8326.
  • 12
    Takahashi E, Ohshima K, Kimura H et al. Clinicopathological analysis of the age-related differences in patients with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated extranasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma with reference to the relationship with aggressive NK cell leukaemia and chronic active EBV infection-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. Histopathology 2011; 59: 66071.
  • 13
    Kimura H, Ito Y, Kawabe S et al. EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative diseases in nonimmunocompromised hosts: prospective analysis of 108 cases. Blood 2012; 119: 67386.
  • 14
    Kimura H, Ito Y, Suzuki R, Nishiyama Y. Measuring Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) load: the significance and application for each EBV-associated disease. Rev Med Virol 2008; 18: 30519.
  • 15
    Randhawa PS, Jaffe R, Demetris AJ et al. Expression of Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNA (by the EBER-1 gene) in liver specimens from transplant recipients with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 17104.
  • 16
    Chuang SS, Lin CN, Li CY. Malignant lymphoma in southern Taiwan according to the revised European–American classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Cancer 2000; 89: 158692.
  • 17
    Middeldorp JM, Brink AA, van den Brule AJ, Meijer CJ. Pathogenic roles for Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) gene products in EBV-associated proliferative disorders. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2003; 45: 136.
  • 18
    Kimura H, Miyake K, Yamauchi Y et al. Identification of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphocyte subtypes by flow cytometric in situ hybridization in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. J Infect Dis 2009; 200: 107887.
  • 19
    Ito Y, Kawabe S, Kojima S et al. Identification of Epstein–Barr virus-infected CD27+ memory B-cells in liver or stem cell transplant patients. J Gen Virol 2011; 92: 25905.
  • 20
    Kimura H, Morita M, Yabuta Y et al. Quantitative analysis of Epstein–Barr virus load by using a real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 1326.
  • 21
    Hoshino Y, Kimura H, Tanaka N et al. Prospective monitoring of the Epstein–Barr virus DNA by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction after allogenic stem cell transplantation. Br J Haematol 2001; 115: 10511.
  • 22
    Chan JKC, Jaffe ES, Ralfkiaer E, Ko YH. Aggressive NK-cell leukeamia. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL et al., eds. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th edn. Lyon: WHO Press, 2008; 2767.
  • 23
    Chan JKC, Quintanilla-Martinez L, Ferry JA, Peh S-C. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL et al., eds. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th edn. Lyon: WHO Press, 2008; 2858.
  • 24
    Pileri SA, Weisenburger DD, Sng I, Jaffe ES. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL et al., eds. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th edn. Lyon: WHO Press, 2008; 3068.
  • 25
    Henter JI, Horne A, Arico M et al. HLH-2004: diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007; 48: 12431.
  • 26
    Okano M, Kawa K, Kimura H et al. Proposed guidelines for diagnosing chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection. Am J Hematol 2005; 80: 649.
  • 27
    Kimura H, Hoshino Y, Hara S et al. Differences between T cell-type and natural killer cell-type chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 5319.
  • 28
    Gotoh K, Ito Y, Ohta R et al. Immunologic and virologic analyses in pediatric liver transplant recipients with chronic high Epstein–Barr virus loads. J Infect Dis 2010; 202: 4619.
  • 29
    Shibata Y, Hoshino Y, Hara S et al. Clonality analysis by sequence variation of the latent membrane protein 1 gene in patients with chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection. J Med Virol 2006; 78: 7709.
  • 30
    van Dongen JJ, Langerak AW, Bruggemann M et al. Design and standardization of PCR primers and protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98–3936. Leukemia 2003; 17: 2257317.
  • 31
    Sandberg Y, van Gastel-Mol EJ, Verhaaf B, Lam KH, van Dongen JJ, Langerak AW. BIOMED-2 multiplex immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor polymerase chain reaction protocols can reliably replace Southern blot analysis in routine clonality diagnostics. J Mol Diagn 2005; 7: 495503.
  • 32
    Kuzushima K, Hoshino Y, Fujii K et al. Rapid determination of Epstein–Barr virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell frequencies by flow cytometry. Blood 1999; 94: 3094100.
  • 33
    Iwata S, Wada K, Tobita S et al. Quantitative analysis of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-related gene expression in patients with chronic active EBV infection. J Gen Virol 2010; 91: 4250.
  • 34
    Kanegane H, Wado T, Nunogami K, Seki H, Taniguchi N, Tosato G. Chronic persistent Epstein–Barr virus infection of natural killer cells and B cells associated with granular lymphocytes expansion. Br J Haematol 1996; 95: 11622.
  • 35
    Kasahara Y, Yachie A. Cell type specific infection of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and chronic active EBV infection. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2002; 44: 28394.
  • 36
    Endo R, Yoshioka M, Ebihara T, Ishiguro N, Kikuta H, Kobayashi K. Clonal expansion of multiphenotypic Epstein–Barr virus-infected lymphocytes in chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection. Med Hypotheses 2004; 63: 5827.
  • 37
    Ohga S, Ishimura M, Yoshimoto G et al. Clonal origin of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-infected T/NK-cell subpopulations in EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of childhood. J Clin Virol 2011; 51: 317.
  • 38
    Calattini S, Sereti I, Scheinberg P, Kimura H, Childs RW, Cohen JI. Detection of EBV genomes in plasmablasts/plasma cells and non-B cells in the blood of most patients with EBV lymphoproliferative disorders using Immuno-FISH. Blood 2010; 116: 45469.
  • 39
    Barrionuevo C, Anderson VM, Zevallos-Giampietri E et al. Hydroa-like cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular genetic study of 16 pediatric cases from Peru. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2002; 10: 714.
  • 40
    Chen HH, Hsiao CH, Chiu HC. Hydroa vacciniforme-like primary cutaneous CD8-positive T-cell lymphoma. Br J Dermatol 2002; 147: 58791.
  • 41
    Cho KH, Lee SH, Kim CW et al. Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative lesions presenting as a hydroa vacciniforme-like eruption: an analysis of six cases. Br J Dermatol 2004; 151: 37280.
  • 42
    Iwatsuki K, Satoh M, Yamamoto T et al. Pathogenic link between hydroa vacciniforme and Epstein–Barr virus-associated hematologic disorders. Arch Dermatol 2006; 142: 58795.
  • 43
    Tanaka C, Hasegawa M, Fujimoto M et al. Phenotypic analysis in a case of hydroa vacciniforme-like eruptions associated with chronic active Epstein–Barr virus disease of gammadelta T cells. Br J Dermatol 2012; 166: 2168.
  • 44
    Hirai Y, Yamamoto T, Kimura H et al. Hydroa vacciniforme is associated with increased numbers of Epstein–Barr virus-infected γδT cells. J Invest Dermatol 2012; 132: 14018.
  • 45
    Kaufmann SH. Gamma/delta and other unconventional T lymphocytes: what do they see and what do they do? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 22729.
  • 46
    Bonneville M, O'Brien RL, Born WK. Gammadelta T cell effector functions: a blend of innate programming and acquired plasticity. Nat Rev Immunol 2010; 10: 46778.
  • 47
    Shibata K, Yamada H, Nakamura R, Sun X, Itsumi M, Yoshikai Y. Identification of CD25+ gamma delta T cells as fetal thymus-derived naturally occurring IL-17 producers. J Immunol 2008; 181: 59407.