Smoking is a significant contributing factor to disease-related deaths worldwide. Members of the Japanese Cancer Association (JCA) can play a leading role in helping people to live tobacco-free through social action. In 2010, this study assessed smoking prevalence among JCA members and their attitudes toward smoking, smoking cessation, and their responsibilities. Results of the 2010 survey were compared with those of a 2006 survey. Final response rates were 60.8% in the 2006 survey and 47.4% in the 2010 survey, and the current smoking rates were 9.0% and 5.3%, respectively. Regarding concern by current smokers over smoking cessation, the percentage of smokers who were ready to quit smoking within the next month increased from 4.9% to 6.3% between 2006 and 2010. Most JCA members agreed with antismoking actions such as smoking bans in all workplaces, public places, or while walking in the street, regulation restricting the sale and distribution of tobacco to children, tobacco education at school, use of tobacco tax for health, provision of information on tobacco, and smoking cessation support. Approximately 30% of responders disagreed on actions to raise the price of tobacco, regulations restricting the sale of tobacco, health warnings on tobacco packaging, bans on tobacco advertisement, and antismoking campaigns. Barriers to smoking cessation interventions identified were physician's time required to provide interventions, resistance of patients to smoking cessation advice, and lack of education on tobacco control. Not only antismoking actions but also support of smokers by health professionals through adequate education on smoking cessation treatment is needed in the future. (Cancer Sci 2012; 103: 1595–1599)