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Anti-angiogenesis effect of 3′-sulfoquinovosyl-1′-monoacylglycerol through upregulation of thrombospondin 1

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Page 1546–52

Novel compounds with anti-angiogenic properties continue to provide new options for inhibiting growth of solid tumors. 3′-Sulfoquinovosyl-1′-monoacylglycerol (SQMG) has been shown to exhibit antitumor effects by targeting angiogenesis, but the mechanism by which this is accomplished is not fully understood. In one of several in vitro and in vivo experiments carried out by Matsuki and colleagues to elucidate this mechanism, two lines of human breast adenocarcinoma cells were injected into mice treated with SQMG. In one cell line, RNA interference was used to reduce expression of thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1), a vascular endothelial growth factor signaling molecule, whereas the other was treated with non-functional, control RNA. As expected, tumor growth was inhibited in control mice. However, when TSP-1 expression was downregulated with RNA interference, SQMG lost its antitumorogenic effect. This work indicates that upregulation of TSP-1 is a critical component of the anti-angiogenic effects of SQMG.doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2012.02333.x

Villin1 is a predictive factor for the recurrence of high serum alpha-fetoprotein-associated hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy

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Page 1493–501

Treatment success in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can often only be assessed with post-surgical measurements of serum alpha-fetoprotein, and predictors of post-surgical outcomes are limited. Xieraili and coworkers carried out experiments aimed at identifying predictive genetic markers from tissues taken from patients with HCC and hepatoma cell lines. The authors carried out microarray studies and cross-validated their findings by quantifying gene expression profiles in an independent set of patients. These procedures narrowed their results to a single gene, Villin1 (VIL1), which codes for a cytoskeletal protein that is involved in epithelial–mesenchymal transitions and has been implicated in a number of cancers. Importantly, VIL1 overexpression was associated with recurrence and poor overall survival in patients treated for HCC. This work suggests that VIL1 might serve as an early prognostic factor when evaluating a patient's disease.doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2012.02315.x

Dose-dependent mesothelioma induction by intraperitoneal injection of multiwall carbon nanotubes in p53 heterozygous mice

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Page 1440–44

Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are exciting tools used in many areas of science and engineering. However, the size and shape of some of these materials closely mimic the carcinogenic microparticles in asbestos. Takagi and colleagues investigated the potential for MWCNTs to cause mesothelioma in mice. The authors used a p53 heterozygous mouse model that has been previously validated for the study of mesotheliomagenic asbestos. Injections of MWCNTs with dimensions similar to asbestos led to the development of mesothelioma in a dose-dependent fashion. Mice treated with the lowest dose of these fibrous particles had the lowest incidence of mesothelioma, but did develop dysplastic cells that could represent precursor lesions. The cellular make-up of the environment of dysplasia was also analyzed and identified infiltration by lymphocytes and macrophages without granuloma formation. These findings not only highlight the potential hazards of MWCNTs, but also lend support to theories of fiber carcinogenesis.doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2012.02318.x

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