• Dependence;
  • measurement;
  • negative reinforcement;
  • tobacco


This review of negative reinforcement models of drug dependence is part of a series that takes the position that a complete understanding of current concepts of dependence will facilitate the development of reliable and valid measures of the emergence of tobacco dependence. Other reviews within the series consider models that emphasize positive reinforcement and social learning/cognitive models. This review summarizes negative reinforcement in general and then presents four current negative reinforcement models that emphasize withdrawal, classical conditioning, self-medication and opponent-processes. For each model, the paper outlines central aspects of dependence, conceptualization of dependence development and influences that the model might have on current and future measures of dependence. Understanding how drug dependence develops will be an important part of future successful tobacco dependence measurement, prevention and treatment strategies.