Contingency management for treatment of substance use disorders: a meta-analysis
Article first published online: 21 SEP 2006
Volume 101, Issue 11, pages 1546–1560, November 2006
How to Cite
Prendergast, M., Podus, D., Finney, J., Greenwell, L. and Roll, J. (2006), Contingency management for treatment of substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Addiction, 101: 1546–1560. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01581.x
- Issue published online: 10 OCT 2006
- Article first published online: 21 SEP 2006
- Submitted 26 October 2005; initial review completed 9 January 2006; final version accepted 4 May 2006
- Contingency management;
- substance abuse treatment
Aims To examine the effectiveness of contingency management (CM) techniques in treating substance use disorders (i.e. illicit drugs, alcohol, tobacco).
Design Meta-analysis was used to determine the average effect size and potential moderators in 47 comparisons of the effectiveness of CM from studies based on a treatment–control group design and published between 1970 and 2002.
Findings The mean effect size (ES) of CM was positive, with a magnitude of d = 0.42 using a fixed effects model. The magnitude of the ES declined over time, following treatment. CM was more effective in treating opiate use (d = 0.65) and cocaine use (d = 0.66), compared with tobacco (d = 0.31) or multiple drugs (d = 0.42). Larger effect sizes were associated with higher researcher involvement, earlier studies and shorter treatment duration.
Conclusions Study findings suggest that CM is among the more effective approaches to promoting abstinence during the treatment of substance use disorders. CM improves the ability of clients to remain abstinent, thereby allowing them to take fuller advantage of other clinical treatment components.