In memory of Henri Begleiter and Theodore Reich, Principal and Co-Principal Investigators of COGA since its inception; we are indebted to their leadership in the establishment and nurturing of COGA, and acknowledge with great admiration their seminal scientific contributions to the field.
Alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence: genetic and phenotypic associations suggest a more severe form of the disorder with stronger genetic contribution to risk*
Article first published online: 12 JUN 2007
Volume 102, Issue 7, pages 1131–1139, July 2007
How to Cite
Dick, D. M., Agrawal, A., Wang, J. C., Hinrichs, A., Bertelsen, S., Bucholz, K. K., Schuckit, M., Kramer, J., Nurnberger, J., Tischfield, J., Edenberg, H. J., Goate, A. and Bierut, L. J. (2007), Alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence: genetic and phenotypic associations suggest a more severe form of the disorder with stronger genetic contribution to risk. Addiction, 102: 1131–1139. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01871.x
- Issue published online: 12 JUN 2007
- Article first published online: 12 JUN 2007
- Submitted 1 August 2006; initial review completed 30 November 2006; final version accepted 2 March 2007
- Alcohol dependence;
- comorbid drug dependence;
Background Twin data suggest that alcohol dependence comorbid with illicit drug dependence represents a more heritable form of the disorder. In the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism sample, approximately half the alcohol-dependent individuals also meet diagnostic criteria for illicit drug dependence. In this study, we tested for heterogeneity in the association between the muscarinic acetylcholine M2 receptor gene (CHRM2) and alcohol dependence, reported previously in the full sample, among the subgroups of alcohol-dependent individuals with and without comorbid drug dependence.
Methods Family-based association tests were conducted separately (a) in individuals with alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence (n = 477) and (b) in individuals with alcohol dependence without comorbid drug dependence (n = 433). These subgroups were subsequently compared on other phenotypic characteristics.
Results The evidence for association between CHRM2 and alcohol dependence came entirely from the subgroup of individuals with comorbid drug dependence. There was no evidence of association with CHRM2 among the alcohol-dependent individuals without drug dependence. Subsequent phenotypic analyses suggest that the subgroup of alcohol-dependent individuals with comorbid drug dependence differ on a number of other phenotypic characteristics, including several measures of the severity of their alcohol problems, personality traits and comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Conclusions These analyses provide specific genetic evidence suggesting that alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence represents a particularly severe form of the disorder, with higher genetic contribution to vulnerability.