• 1
    Hagan H., Thiede H., Weiss N. S., Hopkins S. G., Duchin J. S., Alexander E. R. Sharing of drug preparation equipment as a risk factor for hepatitis C. Am J Public Health 2001; 91: 426.
  • 2
    Buning E. C., Coutinho R. A., Van Brussel G. H., Van Santen G. W., Van Zadelhoff A. W. Preventing AIDS in drug addicts in Amsterdam. Lancet 1986; 1: 1435.
  • 3
    Langendam M. W., Van Brussel G. H., Coutinho R. A., Van Ameijden E. J. Methadone maintenance and cessation of injecting drug use: results from the Amsterdam Cohort Study. Addiction 2000; 95: 591600.
  • 4
    Drucker E., Lurie P., Wodak A., Alcabes P. Measuring harm reduction: the effects of needle and syringe exchange programs and methadone maintenance on the ecology of HIV. AIDS 1998; 12: S21730.
  • 5
    Wodak A., Cooney A. Do needle syringe programs reduce HIV infection among injecting drug users: a comprehensive review of the international evidence. Subst Use Misuse 2006; 41: 777813.
  • 6
    HEN and WHO Europe. What Is the Evidence for the Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Hepatitis C Infection and the Associated Morbidity? 2005. Available at: http://www.euro.who.International/document/E86159.pdf (accessed 8 March 2007).
  • 7
    Lindenburg C. E. A., Krol A., Smit C., Buster M. C., Coutinho R. A., Prins M. Decline in HIV incidence and injecting, but not in sexual risk behaviour, seen in drug users in Amsterdam: a 19-year prospective cohort study. AIDS 2006; 20: 17715.
  • 8
    Tahan V., Karaca C., Yildirim B., Bozbas A., Ozaras R., Demir K. et al. Sexual transmission of HCV between spouses. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 8214.
    Direct Link:
  • 9
    Terrault N. A. Sex and hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 8256.
    Direct Link:
  • 10
    Van Den Hoek J. A. R., Coutinho R. A., Van Haastrecht H. J. A., Van Zadelhoff A. W., Goudsmit J. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV infections among drug users and drug-using prostitutes in Amsterdam. AIDS 1988; 2: 5560.
  • 11
    Dole V. P. Implications of methadone maintenance for theories of narcotic addiction. JAMA 1988; 260: 30259.
  • 12
    Amato L., Davoli M., Perucci A., Ferri M., Faggiano F., Mattick P. An overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. J Subst Abuse Treat 2005; 28: 3219.
  • 13
    Donny E. C., Brasser S. M., Bigelow G. E., Stitzer M. L., Walsh S. L. Methadone doses of 100 mg or greater are more effective than lower doses at suppressing heroin self-administration in opioid-dependent volunteers. Addiction 2005; 100: 1496509.
  • 14
    Van Den Berg C. H. S. B., Smit C., Bakker M., Geskus R. B., Berkhout B., Jurriaans S. et al. Major decline of hepatitis C virus incidence rate over two decades in a cohort of drug users. Eur J Epidemiol 2007; 22: 18393.
  • 15
    Hernandez-Aguado I., Ramos-Rincon J. M., Avinio M. J., Gonzalez-Aracil J., Perez-Hoyos S., De La Hera M. G. Measures to reduce HIV infection have not been successful to reduce the prevalence of HCV in intravenous drug users. Eur J Epidemiol 2001; 17: 53944.
  • 16
    Muga R., Sanvisens A., Bolao F., Toi J., Santesmases J., Pujol R. et al. Significant reductions of HIV prevalence but not of hepatitis C virus infections in injection drug users from metropolitan Barcelona: 1987–2001. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006; 82: S2933.
  • 17
    Broers B., Junet C., Bourquin M., Deglon J. J., Perrin L., Hirschel B. Prevalence and incidence rate of HIV, hepatitis B and C among drug users on methadone maintenance treatment in Geneva between 1988 and 1995. AIDS 1998; 12: 205966.
  • 18
    MacDonald M. A., Wodak A. D., Dolan K. A., Van Beek I., Cunningham P. H., Kaldor J. M. Hepatitis C virus antibody prevalence among injecting drug users at selected needle and syringe programs in Australia, 1995–1997. Collaboration of Australian NSPs. Med J Aust 2000; 172: 5761.
  • 19
    Somaini B., Wang J., Perozo M., Kuhn F., Meili D., Grob P. et al. A continuing concern: HIV and hepatitis testing and prevalence among drug users in substitution programmes in Zurich, Switzerland. AIDS Care 2000; 12: 44960.
  • 20
    Taylor A., Goldberg D., Hutchinson S., Cameron S., Gore S. M., McMenamin J. et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users in Glasgow 1990–1996: are current harm reduction strategies working? J Infect 2000; 40: 17683.
  • 21
    Langendam M. W., Van Haastrecht H. J., Van Ameijden E. J. The validity of drug users' self-reports in a non-treatment setting: prevalence and predictors of incorrect reporting methadone treatment modalities. Int J Epidemiol 1999; 28: 51420.
  • 22
    Aceijas C., Stimson G. V., Hickman M., Rhodes T. Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users. AIDS 2004; 18: 2295303.
  • 23
    Hamers F. F., Downs A. M. HIV in central and eastern Europe. Lancet 2003; 361: 103544.