• 1
    King G. The ‘Race’ concept in smoking: a review of the research on African Americans. Soc Sci Med 1997; 45: 107587.
  • 2
    USDHHS. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups-African Americans American Indians, Alaskan Natives Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1998.
  • 3
    Fagan P., Moolcham E. T., Lawrence D., Fernander A., Ponder P. L. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum. Addiction 2007; 102 (Suppl. 2): 528.
  • 4
    USDHHS. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.
  • 5
    Hall W., Madden P., Lynskey M. The genetics of tobacco use: methods, findings and policy implications. Tob Control 2002; 11: 11924.
  • 6
    Lerman C., Berrettini W. Elucidating the role of genetic factors in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2003; 118B: 4854.
  • 7
    Heath A. C., Kirk K. M., Meyer J. M., Martin N. G. Genetic and social determinants of initiation and age at onset of smoking in Australian twins. Behav Genet 1999; 29: 395407.
  • 8
    Lerman C., Audrain J., Main D., Boyd N. R., Caporaso N. E., Bowman E. D. et al. Evidence suggesting the role of specific genetic factors in cigarette smoking. Health Psychol 1999; 18: 1420.
  • 9
    Sullivan P. F., Kendler K. S. The genetic epidemiology of smoking. Nicotine Tob Res 1999; 1: S517.
  • 10
    Xu C., Goodz S., Sellers E. M., Tyndale R. F. CYP2A6 genetic variation and potential consequences. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2002; 54: 124556.
  • 11
    Collins F. S., Green E. D., Guttmacher A. E., Guyer M. S. A vision for the future of genomics research. Nature 2003; 422: 83547.
  • 12
    Shields A., Fortun M., Hammonds E. M., King P. A., Lerman C., Rapp R. et al. The use of race variables in genetic studies of complex traits and the goal of reducing health disparities: a transdisciplinary perspective. Am Psychol 2005; 60: 77103.
  • 13
    Burchard E. G., Ziv E., Coyle N., Gomez S. L., Tang H., Karter A. J. et al. The importance of race and ethnic background in biomedical research and clinical practice. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 11705.
  • 14
    Fullilove M. T. Comment: abandoning ‘race’ as a variable in public health research—an idea whose time has come. Am J Public Health 1998; 88: 12978.
  • 15
    Risch N., Burchard E., Ziv E., Tang H. Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease. Genome Biol 2002; 3: 112.
  • 16
    Rivara F. P., Finberg L. Use of the terms race and ethnicity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155: 119.
  • 17
    Schwartz R. Racial profiling in medical research. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 13923.
  • 18
    Lee S. S. Racializing drug design: implications of pharmacogenomics for health disparities. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 21338.
  • 19
    Lopez I. H. White by Law. New York: New York University Press; 1996.
  • 20
    Mays V. M., Ponce N. A., Washington D. L., Cochran S. D. Classification of race and ethnicity: implications for public health. Annu Rev Public Health 2003; 24: 83110.
  • 21
    Nobles M. History counts: a comparative analysis of racial/color categorization in US and Brazilian censuses. Am J Public Health 2000; 90: 173845.
  • 22
    Smedley A., Smedley B. D. Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real: anthropological and historical perspectives on the social construction of race. Am Psychol 2005; 60: 1626.
  • 23
    Snowden F. M. Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1983.
  • 24
    Cooper R. A note on the biological concept of race and its application in epidemiologic research. Am Heart J 1984; 108: 71523.
  • 25
    Jordan W. White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press; 1995.
  • 26
    Allen T. W. The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 1. London and New York: Verso; 1994.
  • 27
    Allen T. W. The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 2. London and New York: Verso; 1997.
  • 28
    Smedley A. Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview, 2nd edn. Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1999.
  • 29
    Stocking G. The turn-of-the-century concept of race. Modernism/Modernity 1994; 1: 416.
  • 30
    Harris M., Consorte J. G., Lang J., Byrne B. Who are the Whites? Imposed census categories and the racial demography of Brazil. Soc Forces 1993; 72: 45162.
  • 31
    Jacobson M. F. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1998.
  • 32
    Fredrickson G. M. The Arrogance of Race. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press; 1998.
  • 33
    Fredrickson G. M. Racism: A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 2002.
  • 34
    Morgan E. S. American Slavery, American Freedom. New York: Norton; 1975.
  • 35
    Krieger N., Bassett M. The health of black folk: disease,class, and ideology. Mon Rev 1986; 8: 7485.
  • 36
    Byrd W. M. Race, biology, and health care: reassessing a relationship. J Health Care Poor Underserved 1990; 1: 27896.
  • 37
    Bonham V. L., Warshauer-Baker E., Collins F. S. Race and ethnicity in the genome era. Am Psychol 2005; 60: 915.
  • 38
    Ossorio P., Duster T. Race and genetics: controversies in biomedical, behavioral, and forensic sciences. Am Psychol 2005; 60: 11528.
  • 39
    Cooper R. S., Kaufman J. S., Ward R. Race and genomics. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 116670.
  • 40
    Krieger N. Stormy weather: race, gene expression, and the science of health disparities. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 215560.
  • 41
    Lee S. S. Race, distributive justice and the promise of pharamacogenomics: ethical considerations. Am J Pharmacogenomics 2003; 3: 28592.
  • 42
    Lee S. S., Mountain J., Koenig B. A. The meanings of ‘race’ in the new genomics: implications for health disparities research. Yale J Health Policy Law Ethics 2001; 1: 3375.
  • 43
    Sankar P. Genetic privacy. Annu Rev Med 2003; 54: 393407.
  • 44
    Lerman C., Caporaso N. E., Bush A., Zheng Y., Audrain J., Main D., Shields P. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene variant and smoking behavior. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2001; 105: 51820.
  • 45
    Audrain-McGovern J., Lerman C., Wileyto E. P., Rodriguez D., Shields P. G. Interacting effects of genetic predisposition and depression on adolescent smoking progression. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161: 122430.
  • 46
    Lerman C., Caporaso N. E., Audrain J., Main D., Bowman E. D., Lockshin B. et al. Evidence suggesting the role of specific genetic factors in cigarette smoking. Health Psychol 1999; 18: 1420.
  • 47
    Lerman C., Caporaso N. E., Audrain J., Main D., Boyd N. R., Shields P. G. Interacting effects of the serotonin transporter gene and neuroticism in smoking practices and nicotine dependence. Mol Psychiatry 2000; 5: 18992.
  • 48
    Sabol S. Z., Nelson M. L., Fisher C., Gunzerath L., Brody C. L., Hu S. et al. A genetic association for cigarette smoking behavior. Health Psychol 1999; 18: 713.
  • 49
    Shields P. G., Lerman C., Audrain J., Bowman E. D., Main D., Boyd N. R. et al. Dopamine D4 receptors and the risk of cigarette smoking in African-Americans and Caucasians. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 4538.
  • 50
    Spitz M. R., Shi H., Yang F., Hudmon K. S., Jiang H., Chamberlain R. M. et al. Case-control study of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and smoking status in lung cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 35863.
  • 51
    Ahijevych K. Nicotine metabolism variability and nicotine addiction. Nicotine Tob Res 1999; 1: S5962.
  • 52
    Caporaso N. E., Lerman C., Audrain J., Boyd N. R., Main D., Issaq H. J. et al. Nicotine metabolism and CYP2D6 phenotype in smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 2613.
  • 53
    David S. P., Niaura R., Papandonatos G. D., Shadel W. G., Burkholder G. J., Britt D. M. et al. Does the DRD2-Taq1 A polymorphism influence treatment response to bupropion hydrochloride for reduction of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome? Nicotine Tob Res 2003; 5: 93542.
  • 54
    Lerman C., Jepson C., Wileyto E. P., Epstein L. H., Rukstalis M., Patterson F. et al. Role of functional genetic variation in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) in response to bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco dependence: results of two randomized clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31: 23142.
  • 55
    Yudkin P., Munafo M., Hey K., Roberts S., Welch S., Johnstone E. et al. Effectiveness of nicotine patches in relation to genotype in women versus men: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2004; 328: 98990.
  • 56
    London S. J., Smart J., Daly A. K. Lung cancer risk in relation to genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydrolase among African-Americans and Caucasians in Los Angeles County. Lung Cancer 2000; 28: 14755.
  • 57
    Taioli E., Crofts F., Trachman J., Demopoulos R., Toniolo P., Garte S. J. A specific African-American CYP1A1 polymorphism is associated with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 4723.
  • 58
    Park J. Y., Muscat J. E., Kaur T., Schantz S. P., Stern J. C., Richie J. P. et al. Comparison of GSTM polymorphisms and risk for oral cancer between African-Americans and Caucasians. Pharmacogenetics 2000; 10: 12331.
  • 59
    Schoedel K. A., Hoffmann E. B., Rao Y., Sellers E. M., Tyndale R. F. Ethnic variation in CYP2A6 and association of genetically slow nicotine metabolism and smoking in adult Caucasians. Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14: 61526.
  • 60
    Yu M. C., Ross R. K., Chan K. K., Henderson B. E., Skipper P. L., Tannenbaum S. R. et al. Glutathione s-transferase m1 genotype affects aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adduct levels in White, Black, and Asian smokers and nonsmokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995; 4: 8614.
  • 61
    Ahijevych K., Gillespie J. Nicotine dependence and smoking topography among Black and White women. Res Nurs Heath 1997; 20: 50514.
  • 62
    Ahijevych K., Gillespie J., Demirci M., Jagadeesh J. Menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and smoke exposure in Black and White women. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996; 53: 35560.
  • 63
    Ahijevych K., Parsley L. A. Smoke constituent exposure and stage of change in Black and White women cigarette smokers. Addict Behav 1999; 24: 11520.
  • 64
    Ahijevych K., Tyndale R. F., Dhatt R. K., Weed H. G., Browning K. K. Factors influencing continine half-life during smoking abstinence in African American and Caucasian women. Nicotine Tob Res 2002; 4: 42331.
  • 65
    Wagenknecht L. E., Cutter G. R., Haley N. J., Sidney S., Manolio T. A., Hughes G. H. et al. Racial differences in serum cotinine levels among smokers in the coronary artery risk development in (young) adults study. Am J Public Health 1990; 80: 10536.
  • 66
    Benowitz N. L., Perez-Stable E. J., Fong I., Modin G., Herrera B., Jacob P. Ethnic differences in N-glucuronidation and nicotine and cotinine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 291: 1196203.
  • 67
    Moolchan E. T., Franken F. H., Jaszyna-Gasior M. Adolescent nicotine metabolism: ethnoracial differences among dependent smokers. Ethn Dis 2006; 16: 23943.
  • 68
    Oscarson M., Gullsten H., Rautio A., Bernal M. L., Sinues B., Dahl M. et al. Genotyping of human cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), a nicotine C-oxidase. Fed Eur Biochem Soc 1998; 438: 2015.
  • 69
    Oscarson M., McLellan R. A., Gullsten H., Agundez J., Benitez J., Rautio A. et al. Identification and characterisation of novel polymorphisms in the CYP2A locus: implications for nicotine metabolism. Fed Eur Biochem Soc 1999; 460: 3217.
  • 70
    Risch N. Dissecting racial and ethnic differences. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 40811.
  • 71
    Rosenberg N. A., Pritchard J. K., Weber J. L., Cann H. M., Kidd K. K., Zhivotovsky L. A. et al. Genetic structure of human populations. Science 2002; 298: 23815.
  • 72
    Tang H., Quertermous T., Rodriguez B., Kardia S. L. R., Zhu X., Brown A. et al. Genetic structure, self-identified race/ethnicity, and confounding in case–control association studies. Am J Hum Genet 2005; 76: 26875.
  • 73
    Berrettini W. H., Lerman C. Pharmacotherapy and pharmacogenetics of nicotine dependence. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 144151.
  • 74
    Lerman C., Shields P. G., Wileyto E. P., Audrain J., Pinto A., Hawk L. et al. Pharmacogenetic investigation of smoking cessation treatment. Pharmacogenetics 2002; 12: 62734.
  • 75
    Lerman C., Wileyto E. P., Audrain J., Pinto A., Kucharski S., Niaura R. et al. Effects of dopamine transporter and receptor polymorphisms on smoking cessation in a bupropion clinical trial. Health Psychol 2003; 22: 5418.
  • 76
    Lerman C., Wileyto E. P., Patterson F., Rukstalis M., Audrain-McGovern J., Restine S. et al. The functional mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) Asn40Asp variant predicts short-term response to nicotine replacement therapy in a clinical trial. J Pharmacogenomics 2004; 4: 18492.
  • 77
    Lerman C., Patterson F., Berrettini W. Treating tobacco dependence: state of the science and new directions. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 31123.
  • 78
    United States Department of Energy Office of Science. Pharmacogenomics. Human Genome Project Information Web site. Available at: http://www/prm;/gpv/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/pharma.shtml (accessed 10 October 2006).
  • 79
    March R., Cheeseman K., Doherty M. Pharmacogenetics-legal, ethical and regulatory considerations. Pharmacogenomics 2001; 2: 31727.
  • 80
    Veenstra D. L., Higashi M. K., Phillips K. A. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics. AAPS Pharmsci 2000; 2: E29.
  • 81
    Foster M. W., Sharp R. R. Race, ethnicity, and genomics: social classifications as proxies of biological heterogeneity. Genome Res 2002; 12: 84450.
  • 82
    Foster M. W., Sharp R. R., Mulvihill J. J. Pharmacogenetics, race, and ethnicity: social identities and individualized medical care. Ther Drug Monit 2001; 23: 2328.
  • 83
    Rothstein M. A., Epps P. G. Pharmacogenomics and the relevance of race. Pharmacogenomics J 2001; 1: 1048.
  • 84
    Jones C. P. Invited commentary: ‘race’, racism, and the practice of epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 154: 299304.
  • 85
    Stevens J., (2003). Racial meanings and scientific methods: changing policies for NIH-sponsored publications reporting human variation. J Health Polit Policy Law 2003; 28: 103387.
  • 86
    The International HapMap Consortium. A haplotype map of the human genome. Nature 2005; 437: 1299320.
  • 87
    Fernander A., Shavers V., Hammons G. A biopsychosocial approach to examining tobacco-related health disparities among racially classified social groups. Addiction 2007; 102 (Suppl. 2): 5864.
  • 88
    Moolchan E., Fagan P., Fernander A., Velicer W. F., Hayward M. D., King G. et al. Addressing tobacco-related health disparities. Addiction 2007; 102 (Suppl. 2): 3042.