• 1
    Etter J. F. The psychological determinants of low-rate daily smoking. Addiction 2004; 99: 134250.
  • 2
    Gilpin E. A., Cavin S. W., Pierce J. P. Adult smokers who do not smoke daily. Addiction 1997; 92: 47380.
  • 3
    Owen N., Kent P., Wakefield M., Roberts L. Low-rate smokers. Prev Med 1995; 24: 804.
  • 4
    Wortley P. M., Husten C. G., Trosclair A., Chrismon J., Pederson L. L. Nondaily smokers: a descriptive analysis. Nicotine Tob Res 2003; 5: 7559.
  • 5
    Hassmiller K. M., Warner K. E., Mendez D., Levy D. T., Romano E. Nondaily smokers: who are they? Am J Public Health 2003; 93: 13217.
  • 6
    Alexander B. K., Hadaway P. F. Opiate addiction: The case for an adaptive orientation. Psychol Bull 1982; 92: 36781.
  • 7
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction: A Report of the Surgeon General, DHHS Publication No. CDC 88-8416. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.
  • 8
    Benowitz N. L. Clinical pharmacology of nicotine. Annu Rev Med 1986; 37: 2132.
  • 9
    Evans N. J., Gilpin E., Pierce J. P., Burns D. M., Borland R., Johnson M. et al. Occasional smoking among adults: evidence from the California Tobacco Survey. Tob Control 1992; 1: 16975.
  • 10
    Benowitz N. L., Jacob P. III, Kozlowski L. T., Yu L. Influence of smoking fewer cigarettes on exposure to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 131013.
  • 11
    Shiffman S., Zettler-Segal M., Kassel J., Paty J., Benowitz N. L., O'Brien G. Nicotine elimination and tolerance in non-dependent cigarette smokers. Psychopharmacology 1992; 109: 44956.
  • 12
    Shiffman S. Tobacco ‘chippers’—individual differences in tobacco dependence. Psychopharmacology 1989; 97: 53947.
  • 13
    Shiffman S., Paty J. A., Gnys M., Kassel J. D., Elash C. Nicotine withdrawal in chippers and regular smokers: subjective and cognitive effects. Health Psychol 1995; 14: 3019.
  • 14
    Zhu S. H., Sun J., Hawkins S., Pierce J., Cummins S. A population study of low-rate smokers: quitting history and instability over time. Health Psychol 2003; 22: 24552.
  • 15
    Husten C. G., McCarty M. C., Giovino G. A., Chrismon J. H., Zhu B. Intermittent smokers: a descriptive analysis of persons who have never smoked daily. Am J Public Health 1998; 88: 869.
  • 16
    Palinkas L. A., Pierce J., Rosbrook B. P., Pickwell S., Johnson M., Bal D. G. Cigarette smoking behavior and beliefs of Hispanics in California. Am J Prev Med 1993; 9: 3317.
  • 17
    Okeyumi K. S., Harris K. J., Scheibmeir M., Choi W. S., Powell J., Ahluwalia J. S. Light smokers: issues and recommendations. Nicotine Tob Res 2002; 4: S10312.
  • 18
    Farkas A. J., Gilpin E. A., Distefan J. M., Pierce J. P. The effects of household and workplace smoking restrictions on quitting behaviours. Tob Control 1999; 8: 2615.
  • 19
    Hajek P., West R., Wilson J. Regular smokers, lifetime very light smokers, and reduced smokers: comparison of psychosocial and smoking characteristics in women. Health Psychol 1995; 14: 195201.
  • 20
    Hennrikus D. J., Jeffery R. W., Lando H. A. Occasional smoking in a Minnesota working population. Am J Public Health 1996; 86: 12606.
  • 21
    Gilpin E. A., White M., White V. Tobacco Control Successes in California: Results from the California Tobacco Surveys, 1990–2002. La Jolla, San Diego, CA: University of California; 2003.
  • 22
    Doll R., Peto R., Boreham J., Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. Br Med J 2004; 328: 1519.22.
  • 23
    Ockene J. K., Hymowitz N., Sexton M., Broste S. K. Comparison of patterns of smoking behavior change among smokers in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Prev Med 1982; 11: 62138.
  • 24
    California Health Interview Survey. CHIS 2001 Adult Public Use File, Release 1 [Computer File]. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy and Research; 2004.
  • 25
    California Health Interview Survey. CHIS 2003 Adult Public Use File, Release 1 [Computer File]. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy and Research; 2005.
  • 26
    Centers for Disease Control. Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2003. MMWR 2005; 54: 50913.
  • 27
    Centers for Disease Control. BRFSS 2001 Summary Data Quality Report, 2006. Available at: (accessed 4 September 2006).
  • 28
    Centers for Disease Control. BRFSS 2003 Summary Data Quality Report, 2006. Available at: (accessed 4 September 2006).
  • 29
    California Health Interview Survey. CHIS 2003 Methodology Series: Report 2—Data Collection Methods. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy and Research; 2005.
  • 30
    National Cancer Institute, Cancer Control and Population Sciences. Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods: Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 2006. Available at (accessed 29 November 2006).
  • 31
    SAS Institute Inc. SAS® 9.1 Language Reference: Concepts. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.; 2004.
  • 32
    Research Triangle Institute. SUDAAN Language Manual, Release 9.0. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park; 2004.
  • 33
    Caraballo R. S., Giovino G. A., Pechacek T. F., Mowery P. D., Richter P. A., Strauss W. J. et al. Racial and ethnic differences in serum cotinine levels of cigarette smokers: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1359.
  • 34
    Benowitz N. L., Perez-Stable E. J., Herrera B., Jacob P. III. Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 10815.
  • 35
    Perez-Stable E. J., Herrera B., Jacob P. III, Benowitz N. L. Nicotine metabolism and intake in black and white smokers. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1526.
  • 36
    Orford J. Addiction as excessive appetite. Addiction 2001; 96: 1531.
  • 37
    West R. Theory of Addiction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers; 2006.
  • 38
    Drummond D., Tiffany S., Glautier S., Remington B. Addictive Behaviors: Cue Exposure Theory and Practice. London: John Wiley & Sons; 1995.
  • 39
    Niaura R. S., Rohsenow D. J., Binkoff J. A., Monti P. M., Pedraza M., Abrams D. B. Relevance of cue reactivity to understanding alcohol and smoking relapse. J Abnorm Psychol 1988; 97: 13352.
  • 40
    Field M., Duka T. Cue reactivity in smokers: the effects of perceived cigarette availability and gender. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2004; 78: 64752.
  • 41
    Juliano L. M., Brandon T. H. Reactivity to instructed smoking availability and environmental cues: evidence with urge and reaction time. Exp Clin Psychopharm 1998; 6: 4553.
  • 42
    Luoto R., Uutela A., Puska P. Occasional smoking increases total and cardiovascular mortality among men. Nicotine Tob Res 2000; 2: 1339.
  • 43
    Otsuka R., Watanabe H., Hirata K., Tokai K., Muro T., Yoshiyama M. et al. Acute effects of passive smoking on the coronary circulation in healthy young adults. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 286: 43641.
  • 44
    Hill D., Carroll T. Australia's national tobacco campaign. Tob Control 2003; 12: 914.
  • 45
    Sabogal F., Otero-Sabogal R., Perez-Stable E. J., Marin G. Perceived self-efficacy to avoid cigarette smoking and addiction: differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. Hisp J Behav Sci 1989; 11: 13647.
  • 46
    Zhu S., Melcer T., Sun J., Rosbrook B., Pierce J. P. Smoking cessation with and without assistance: a population-based analysis. Am J Prev Med 2000; 18: 30511.
  • 47
    Levinson A. H., Perez-Stable E. J., Espinoza P., Flores E. T., Byers T. E. Latinos report less use of pharmaceutical aids when trying to quit smoking. Am J Prev Med 2004; 26: 10511.
  • 48
    California Department of Health Services / Tobacco Control Section. A Model for Change: The California Experience in Tobacco Control. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Health Services; 1998. Available at: (accessed 9 November 2006).
  • 49
    Gilpin E. A., White M. M., Farkas A. J., Pierce J. P. Home smoking restrictions: which smokers have them and how they are associated with smoking behavior. Nicotine Tob Res 1999; 1: 15362.
  • 50
    Zhu S.-H., Wong S., Nguyen Q., Tedeschi G. J. Adoption of health behavior: a re-examination of the role of acculturation. Ann Behav Med 2005; 29: S046.
  • 51
    Ferrence R. Diffusion theory and drug use. Addiction 2001; 96: 16573.
  • 52
    Zhu S. H., Wong S., Tang H., Shi C. W., Chen M. S. High quit ratio among Asian immigrants in California: implications for population tobacco cessation. Nicotine Tob Res; in press.
  • 53
    Zhu S. H., Wong V., Zhuang Y. Why are most Latino smokers in California non-dependent? Ann Behav Med 2006; 31: S182.
  • 54
    Norman G. J., Ribisl K. M., Howard-Pitney B., Howard K. A., Unger J. B. The relationship between home smoking bans and exposure to state tobacco control efforts. & smoking behaviors. Am J Health Promot 2000; 15: 818.
  • 55
    Perez-Stable E. J., Marin B. V., Marin G., Brody D. J., Benowitz N. L. Apparent underreporting of cigarette consumption among Mexican American smokers. Am J Public Health 1990; 80: 105761.
  • 56
    Navarro A. Smoking status by proxy and self report: rate of agreement in different ethnic groups. Tob Control 1999; 8: 1825.