• 1
    Zhu S. H., Pulvers K., Zhuang Y., Baezconde-Garbanti L. Most Latino smokers in California are low-frequency smokers. Addiction 2007; 102: 10411.
  • 2
    Benowitz N. L., Henningfield J. E. Establishing a nicotine threshold for addiction. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1235.
  • 3
    DiFranza J. R., Savageau J. A., Fletcher K., Ockene J. K., Rigotti N. A., McNeill A. D. et al. The development of symptoms of tobacco dependence in youths: 30-month follow-up data from the DANDY study. Tob Control 2002; 11: 22835.
  • 4
    O'Loughlin J. O., DiFranza J., Tyndale R. F., Meshefedjian G., McMillan-Davey E., Clarke P. B. S. et al. Nicotine-dependence symptoms are associated with smoking frequency in adolescents. Am J Prev Med 2003; 25: 21925.
  • 5
    Kandel D., Hu M.-C., Grieisler P., Schaffran C. On the development of nicotine dependence in adolescence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2007; 91: 2639.
  • 6
    DiFranza J. R., Savageau J. A., Fletcher K., O'Loughlin J. E., Pbert L., Ockene J. K. et al. Symptoms of tobacco dependence after brief intermittent use—the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth−2. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007; 161: 70410.
  • 7
    Strong D. R., Kahler C. W., Ramsey S. E., Abrantes A., Brown R. A. Nicotine withdrawal among adolescents with acute psychopathology: an item response analysis. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: 54757. Additional data analysis, personal communication, D. R. Strong, 21 July 2004.
  • 8
    An L., Lein E., Bliss R., Pallonen U., Hennrikus D., Farley D. et al. Loss of autonomy over nicotine use among college social smokers. Poster POS2-035 presented at the 10th annual meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 18–21 February 2004. Additional data analysis, personal communication L. An, 23 August 2004.
  • 9
    Pbert L., Flint A., Druker S., Fletcher K., Reed G. [Percentage of subjects experiencing HONC withdrawal symptoms.] Unpublished raw data from ‘Provider and Peer Delivered Youth Smoking Intervention’, NIDA/NCI grant no. 1 R01 CA80254-01, 2004.
  • 10
    McNeill A. D., West R. J., Jarvis M., Jackson P., Bryant A. Cigarette withdrawal symptoms in adolescent smokers. Psychopharmacology 1986; 90: 5336.
  • 11
    Goddard E. Why Children Start Smoking. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. London: HMSO; 1990.
  • 12
    Barker D. Reasons for tobacco use and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal among adolescent and young adult tobacco users—United States, 1993. MMWR 1994; 43: 74550.
  • 13
    Riedel B. W., Robinson L. A., Klesges R. C., McLain-Allen B. Ethnic differences in smoking withdrawal effects among adolescents. Addict Behav 2003; 28: 12940.
  • 14
    Shiffman S., Paty J., Gnys M., Kassel J., Elash C. Nicotine withdrawal in chippers and regular smokers. Subjective and cognitive effects. Health Psychol 1995; 14: 3019.
  • 15
    Wellman R. J., DiFranza J. R., Wood C. Tobacco chippers report diminished autonomy over tobacco use. Addict Behav 2006; 31: 71721.
  • 16
    Fernando W. W. S. A., Wellman R. J., DiFranza J. R. The relationship between level of cigarette consumption and latency to the onset of retrospectively reported withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology 2006; 188: 33542.
  • 17
    Smith K. M., Mitchell S. N., Joseph M. H. Effects of chronic and subchronic nicotine on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurones in the rat brain. J Neurochem 1991; 57: 17506.
  • 18
    DiFranza J. R., Wellman R. J. A sensitization-homeostasis model of nicotine craving, withdrawal and tolerance: integrating the clinical and basic science literature. Nicotine Tob Res 2005; 7: 926.