Happy Ending: a randomized controlled trial of a digital multi-media smoking cessation intervention
Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008
© 2008 The Authors
Volume 103, Issue 3, pages 478–484, March 2008
How to Cite
Brendryen, H. and Kraft, P. (2008), Happy Ending: a randomized controlled trial of a digital multi-media smoking cessation intervention. Addiction, 103: 478–484. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02119.x
- Issue published online: 5 FEB 2008
- Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008
- Submitted 11 June 2007; initial review completed 20 August 2007; final version accepted 21 November 2007
- Behaviour intervention;
- digital media;
- randomized controlled trial;
- smoking cessation;
- treatment effects
Aims To assess the long-term efficacy of a fully automated digital multi-media smoking cessation intervention.
Design Two-arm randomized control trial (RCT).
Setting World Wide Web (WWW) study based in Norway.
Participants Subjects (n = 396) were recruited via internet advertisements and assigned randomly to conditions. Inclusion criteria were willingness to quit smoking and being aged 18 years or older.
Intervention The treatment group received the internet- and cell-phone-based Happy Ending intervention. The intervention programme lasted 54 weeks and consisted of more than 400 contacts by e-mail, web-pages, interactive voice response (IVR) and short message service (SMS) technology. The control group received a self-help booklet. Additionally, both groups were offered free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).
Measurements Abstinence was defined as ‘not even a puff of smoke, for the last 7 days’, and assessed by means of internet surveys or telephone interviews. The main outcome was repeated point abstinence at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months following cessation.
Findings Participants in the treatment group reported clinically and statistically significantly higher repeated point abstinence rates than control participants [22.3% versus 13.1%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–3.26, P = 0.02; intent-to-treat). Improved adherence to NRT and a higher level of post-cessation self-efficacy were observed in the treatment group compared with the control group.
Conclusions As the first RCT documenting the long-term treatment effects of such an intervention, this study adds to the promise of digital media in supporting behaviour change.