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Keywords:

  • Meta-analysis;
  • nicotine patch;
  • nicotine replacement therapy;
  • pre-cessation treatment;
  • smoking cessation;
  • treatment efficacy

ABSTRACT

Aim  To evaluate the incremental efficacy of starting nicotine patch treatment prior to quitting compared to the current regimen of starting patch treatment on the target quit day.

Design and measurements  Meta-analysis of four eligible studies using pre-cessation patch treatment, located by database search and contacts with cessation researchers. The studies all compared starting treatment with nicotine patch prior to the target quit date to starting active treatment at the quit date, some in the context of concurrent mecamylamine treatment. The primary end-point for the analysis was continuous abstinence for at least 28 days assessed at 6 weeks following quit day; 6-month outcomes were also examined.

Findings  Compared to starting active patch treatment on quit day, pre-cessation treatment with nicotine patches was found to double the odds of quitting. This was true both at 6 weeks [pooled odds ratio (OR) = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–2.93] and 6 months (pooled OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.46–3.22) treatment outcomes. Mecamylamine co-treatment did not modify these effects.

Conclusions  Across the four studies analyzed, pre-cessation patch treatment was found to produce a robust increase in quit rates compared to current regimens starting patch at quit day. Pre-cessation patch use represents a promising innovation in smoking cessation therapy with potential beneficial implications for improved public health by further increasing quitting success.