• 1
    Elder G. J. Jr. The life course. In: BorgattaE. F., BorgattaM. L., editors. The Encyclopedia of Sociology. New York: Macmillan; 1992, p. 112030.
  • 2
    Mortimer J., Shanahan M. J., editors. Handbook of the Life Course. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2003.
  • 3
    Laub J. H., Sampson R. J. Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2003.
  • 4
    Robins L. N. Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour: replications from longitudinal studies. Psychol Med 1978; 8: 61122.
  • 5
    Moffitt T. E. Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychol Rev 1993; 100: 674701.
  • 6
    Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Harrington H., Milne B. J. Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years. Dev Psychopathol 2002; 14: 179207.
  • 7
    Rutter M. Isle of Wight revisited: twenty-five years of child psychiatric epidemiology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989; 28: 63353.
  • 8
    Chassin L., Pitts S. C., Prost J. Binge drinking trajectories from adolescence to emerging adulthood in a high-risk sample: predictors and substance abuse outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol 2002; 70: 6778.
  • 9
    Flory K., Lynam D., Milich R., Leukefeld C., Clayton R. Early adolescent through young adult alcohol and marijuana use trajectories: early predictors, young adult outcomes, and predictive utility. Dev Psychopathol 2004; 16: 193213.
  • 10
    Hill K. G., White H. R., Chung I. J., Hawkins J. D., Catalano R. F. Early adult outcomes of adolescent binge drinking: person- and variable-centered analyses of binge drinking trajectories. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2000; 24: 892901.
  • 11
    Schulenberg J. E., Merline A. C., Johnston L. D., O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., Laetz V. B. Trajectories of marijuana use during the transition to adulthood: the big picture based on national panel data. J Drug Issues 2005; 35: 25579.
  • 12
    Zucker R. A. Alcohol use and the alcohol use disorders: a developmental–biopsychosocial systems formulation covering the life course. In: CicchettiD., CohenD. J., editors. Developmental Psychopathology, 2nd edn. New York: Wiley; 2006, p. 62056.
  • 13
    Donovan J. E. Adolescent alcohol initiation: a review of psychosocial risk factors. J Adolesc Health 2004; 35: 529e718.
  • 14
    Hawkins J. D., Catalano R. F., Miller J. Y. Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull 1992; 112: 64105.
  • 15
    Jacob T., Johnson S. L. Family influences on alcohol and substance abuse. In: OttP. J., TarterR. E., AmmermanR. T., editors. Sourcebook on Substance Abuse: Etiology, Epidemiology, Assessment, and Treatment. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon; 1999, p. 166174.
  • 16
    Maggs J. L., Schulenberg J. E. Trajectories of alcohol use during the transition to adulthood. Alcohol Res Health 2005; 28: 195201.
  • 17
    Petraitis J., Flay B. R., Miller T. Q. Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: organizing pieces in the puzzle. Psychol Bull 1995; 117: 6786.
  • 18
    Wills T. A., Yeager A. M. Family factors and adolescent substance use: models and mechanisms. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 2003; 12: 2226.
    Direct Link:
  • 19
    Wills T. A., Cleary S. D. How are social support effects mediated? A test with parental support and adolescent substance use. J Pers Soc Psychol 1996; 71: 93752.
  • 20
    Maggs J. L., Galambos N. L. Alternative structural models for understanding adolescent problem behavior in two-earner families. J Early Adolesc 1993; 13: 79101.
  • 21
    Tarter R. E., Vanyukov M., Giancola P., Dawes M., Blackson T., Mezzich A. et al. Etiology of early age onset substance use disorder: a maturational perspective. Dev Psychopathol 1999; 11: 65783.
  • 22
    Clark D. B., Vanyukov M., Cornelius J. Childhood antisocial behavior and adolescent alcohol use disorders. Alcohol Res Health 2002; 26: 10915.
  • 23
    Dishion T. J., Capaldi D. M., Yoerger K. Middle childhood antecedents to progressions in male adolescent substance use: an ecological analysis of risk and protection. J Adolesc Res 1999; 14: 175205.
  • 24
    Kellam S. G., Brown C. H., Fleming J. P. Social adaptation to first grade and teenage drug, alcohol, and cigarette use. J School Health 1982; 52: 3016.
  • 25
    Brook J. S., Whiteman M., Gordon A. S., Nomura C., Brook D. W. Onset of adolescent drinking: a longitudinal study of intrapersonal and interpersonal antecedents. Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse 1985; 5: 91110.
  • 26
    Flewelling R. L., Bauman K. E. Family structure as a predictor of initial substance use and sexual intercourse in early adolescence. J Marriage Fam 1990; 52: 17181.
  • 27
    Harrison L., Gardiner E. Do the rich really die young? Alcohol-related mortality and social class in Great Britain, 1988–94. Addiction 1999; 94: 187180.
  • 28
    Dearden K. A., Hale C. B., Woolley T. The antecedents of teen fatherhood: a retrospective case-control study of Great Britain youth. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 5514.
  • 29
    Jefferis B. J. M. H., Power C., Graham H., Manor O. Effects of childhood socioeconomic circumstances on persistent smoking. Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 27985.
  • 30
    Russell S. T. Childhood developmental risk for teen childbearing in Britain. J Res Adolesc 2002; 12: 30524.
  • 31
    Bachman J. G., O'Malley P. M., Schulenberg J. E., Johnston L. D., Bryant A. L., Merline A. C. Why Substance Use Declines in Young Adulthood: Changes in Social Activities, Roles, and Beliefs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2002.
  • 32
    Chen C. M., Dufour M. C., Yi H. Y. Alcohol consumption among young adults ages 18–24 in the United States: results from the 2001–2002 NESARC survey. Alcohol Res 20042005; 28: 26980.
  • 33
    Richards M., Hardy R., Wadsworth M. Alcohol consumption and midlife cognitive change in the British 1946 birth cohort study. Alcohol Alcohol 2005; 40: 11217.
  • 34
    Jessor R., Donovan J. E., Costa F. M. Beyond Adolescence: Problem Behavior and Young Adult Development. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1991.
  • 35
    Chassin L., Presson C. C., Sherman S. J. ‘Constructive’ vs. ‘destructive’ deviance in adolescent health behaviors. J Youth Adolesc 1989; 18: 24562.
  • 36
    Maggs J. L. Alcohol use and binge drinking as goal-directed action during the transition to post-secondary education. In: SchulenbergJ. E., MaggsJ. L., HurrelmannK., editors. Health Risks and Developmental Transitions During Adolescence. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1997, p. 34571.
  • 37
    Maggs J. L., Hurrelmann K. Do substance use and delinquency have differential associations with adolescents' peer relations? Int J Behav Dev 1998; 22: 36788.
  • 38
    Newcomb M. D., Bentler P. M. Impact of adolescent drug use and social support on problems of young adults: a longitudinal study. J Abnorm Psychol 1988; 97: 6475.
  • 39
    Shedler J., Block J. Adolescent drug use and psychological health: a longitudinal inquiry. Am Psychol 1990; 45: 61230.
  • 40
    Siebenbruner J., Englund M. M., Egeland B., Hudson K. Developmental antecedents of late adolescence substance use patterns. Dev Psychopathol 2006; 18: 55171.
  • 41
    Crum R. M., Juon H. S., Green K. M., Robertson J., Fothergill K., Ensminger M. Educational achievement and early school behavior as predictors of alcohol-use disorders: 35-year follow-up of the Woodlawn study. J Stud Alcohol 2006; 67: 7585.
  • 42
    Hatch S. L., Jones P. B., Kuh D., Hardy R., Wadsworth M., Richards M. Childhood cognitive ability and adult mental health in the British 1946 birth cohort. Soc Sci Med 2007; 64: 228596.
  • 43
    Power C., Rodgers B., Hope S. U-shaped relation for alcohol consumption and health in early adulthood and implications for mortality. Lancet 1998; 352: 877.
  • 44
    Rehm J. Alcohol consumption and mortality: what do we know and where should we go? Addiction 2000; 95: 98995.
  • 45
    Makepeace G., Dolton P., Woods L., Joshi H., Galinda-Rueda F. From school to the labour market. In: FerriE., BynnerJ., WadsworthM., editors. Changing Britain, Changing Lives: Three Generations at the Turn of the Century. London: Institute of Education; 2003, p. 2970.
  • 46
    Ball S. J. Beachside Comprehensive: A Case-Study of Secondary Schooling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1981.
  • 47
    Benn C., Chitty C. Thirty Years on: Is Comprehensive Education Alive and Well or Struggling to Survive? London: Penguin; 1997.
  • 48
    Reid I. Social Class Differences in Britain, 2nd edn. London: Grant McIntyre; 1981.
  • 49
    Cook T. D., Furstenberg F. F. Explaining aspects of the transition to adulthood in Italy, Sweden, Germany, and the United States: a cross-disciplinary, case synthesis approach. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci 2002; 580: 25787 [Special Issue: Early adulthood in cross-national perspective].
  • 50
    Bynner J., Joshi H. Equality and opportunity in education: evidence from the 1958 and 1970 birth cohort studies. Oxford Rev Educ 2002; 28: 40525.
  • 51
    Kuntsche E., Rehm J., Gmel G. Characteristics of binge drinkers in Europe. Soc Sci Med 2004; 59: 11327.
  • 52
    Johnston L. D., O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975–2002. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH Publication no. 03-5375. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2003.
  • 53
    Academy of Medical Sciences. Calling Time: The Nation's Drinking as a Major Health Issue. London: Academy of Medical Sciences; 2004.
  • 54
    Leon D. A., McCambridge J. Liver cirrhosis mortality rates in Britain from 1950 to 2002: an analysis of routine data. Lancet 1950; 367: 526.
  • 55
    Boreham R., McManus S., editors. Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use Among Young Teenagers in 2002: A Survey Carried Out on the Behalf of the Department of Health by the National Centre for Social Research and the National Foundations for Educational Research. London: Stationery Office; 2003.
  • 56
    Ghodsian M., Power C. Alcohol consumption between the ages of 16 and 23 in Britain: a longitudinal study. Br J Addict 1987; 82: 17580.
  • 57
    Power C., Rodgers B., Hope S. Heavy alcohol consumption and marital status: disentangling the relationship in a national study of young adults. Addiction 1999; 94: 147787.
  • 58
    Estaugh V., Power C. Family disruption in early life and drinking in young adulthood. Alcohol Alcohol 1991; 26: 63944.
  • 59
    Hope S., Power C., Rodgers B. The relationship between parental separation in childhood and problem drinking in adulthood. Addiction 1998; 93: 50514.
  • 60
    Davie R., Butler N. R., Goldstein H. From Birth to Seven: A Report of the National Child Development Study (1958 Cohort). London: Longman; 1972.
  • 61
    Ferri E., Bynner J., Wadsworth M., editors. Changing Britain, Changing Lives: Three Generations at the Turn of the Century. London: Institute of Education; 2003.
  • 62
    Bynner J., Butler N. R., Ferri E., Shepherd P., Smith K. The Design and Conduct of the 1999–2000 Surveys of the National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study. CLS Cohort Studies Working Paper 1. London: Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, University of London; 2000.
  • 63
    Ferri E., editor. Life at 33. The Fifth Follow-up of the National Child Development Study. London: National Children's Bureau; 1993.
  • 64
    Fogelman K. Growing Up in Great Britain: Papers from the National Child Development Study. London: The Macmillan Press; 1983.
  • 65
    Shepherd P. The National Child Development Study: An Introduction, its Origins and the Methods of Data Collection. London: City University; 1995.
  • 66
    Hawkes D., Plewis I. Modelling non-response in the National Child Development Study. J R Stat Soc Ser A (Stat Soc) 2006; 169: 47992.
  • 67
    Marsh C. Social class and occupation. In: BurgessR., editor. Key Variables in Social Investigation. London: Routledge; 1986, p. 123152.
  • 68
    Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and Employment Department Group. Standard Classification of Occupations (SOC). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office; 1980.
  • 69
    Bynner J., Parsons S. Social exclusion and the transition from school to work: the case of young people not in education, employment, or training (NEET). J Vocat Behav 2002; 60: 289309.
  • 70
    Maughan B., Collishaw S., Pickles A. School achievement and adult qualifications among adoptees: a longitudinal study. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 1998; 39: 66985.
  • 71
    Stott D. H. The Social Adjustment of Children. Manual to the Bristol Social Adjustment Guides, 3rd edn. London: University of London Press; 1966.
  • 72
    Rutter M., Tizard J., Whitmore K., editors. Education, Health, and Behavior. London: Longman; 1970.
  • 73
    Buchanan A., Flouri E., Brinke J. T. Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and distress in adult life: risk and protective factors. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 2002; 36: 5217.
  • 74
    Chase-Lansdale P. L., Cherline A. J., Kiernan K. E. The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: a developmental perspective. Child Dev 1995; 66: 161434.
  • 75
    Elander J., Rutter M. Use and development of the Rutter parents' and teachers' scales. Int J Meth Psychiatr Res 1996; 6: 6378.
  • 76
    Southgate V. Southgate Group Reading Tests: Manual of Instructions. London: University of London Press; 1962.
  • 77
    Douglas J. W. B. The Home and the School. London: MacGibbon & Kee; 1964.
  • 78
    Goldstein H. Some models for analysing longitudinal data on educational attainment. J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc 1979; 142: 40722.
  • 79
    Butler N. R., Despotidou S., Shepherd P. 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) Ten-Year Follow-Up: A Guide to the BCS70 10-Year Data Available at the Economic and Social Research Unit Data Archive. London: Social Statistics Research Unit: City University; 1997.
  • 80
    Mayfield D., McLeod G., Hall P. The CAGE questionnaire: validation of a new alcoholism screening instrument. Am J Psychiatry 1974; 131: 11213.
  • 81
    Smart R. G., Adlaf E. M., Knoke D. Use of the CAGE scale in a population survey of drinking. J Stud Alcohol 1991; 52: 5936.
  • 82
    Bisson J., Nadeau L., Demers A. The validity of the CAGE scale to screen for heavy drinking and drinking problems in a general population survey. Addiction 1999; 94: 71522.
  • 83
    Shields A. L., Caruso J. C. A reliability induction and reliability generalization study of the CAGE questionnaire. Educ Psychol Meas 2004; 64: 25470.
  • 84
    Knight J. R., Sherritt L., Harris S. K., Gates E. C., Change G. Validity of brief alcohol screening tests among adolescents: a comparison of the AUDIT, POSIT, CAGE, and CRAFFT. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2003; 27: 6773.
  • 85
    Matano R. A., Koopman C., Wanat S. F., Witsell S. D., Borggrefe A., Westrup D. Assessment of binge drinking of alcohol in highly educated employees. Addict Behav 2003; 28: 1299310.
  • 86
    Bradley K. A., Boyd-Wickizer J., Powell S. H., Burman M. L. Alcohol screening questionnaires in women: a critical review. JAMA 1998; 280: 16671.
  • 87
    Bradley M., Fenwick D. Public Attitudes to Liquor Licensing Laws in Great Britain. London: OPCS Social Survey Division for Home Office and Scottish Home and Health Department; 1974.
  • 88
    Willmott P., Young M. Family and Social Class in a London Suburb. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; 1960.
  • 89
    Sillitoe K. K. Planning for Leisure, Government Social Survey. London: HMSO; 1969.
  • 90
    Schulenberg J. E., Maggs J. L. A developmental perspective on alcohol use and heavy drinking during adolescence and the transition to young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol 2002; (Suppl. 14): 5470.
  • 91
    Liskow B., Campbell J., Nickel E., Powell B. J. Validity of the CAGE questionnaire in screening for alcohol dependence in a walk-in (triage) clinic. J Stud Alcohol 1995; 56: 27781.
  • 92
    Poulin C., Webster I., Single E. Alcohol disorders in Canada as indicated by the CAGE questionnaire. Can Med Assoc J 1997; 157: 152935.
  • 93
    Rumpf H., Hapke U., Erfurth A., John U. Screening questionnaires in the detection of hazardous alcohol consumption in the general hospital: direct or disguised assessment? J Stud Alcohol 1998; 59: 698703.