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A Scotland-wide pilot programme of smoking cessation services for young people: process and outcome evaluation


Wendy Gnich, Research Unit in Health, Behaviour and Change (RUHBC), School of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. E-mail:


Aim  To conduct an independent, external evaluation of a Scotland-wide youth cessation pilot programme, focusing upon service uptake and effectiveness.

Intervention  National Health Service (NHS) Health Scotland and Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) Scotland funded a 3-year (2002–2005) national pilot programme comprising eight projects which aimed to engage with and support young smokers (aged 12–25 years) to quit.

Design, participants and measurements  Process evaluation was undertaken via detailed case studies comprising qualitative interviews, observation and documentary analysis. Outcomes were assessed by following project participants (n = 470 at baseline) at 3 and 12 months and measuring changes in smoking behaviour, including carbon monoxide (CO)-validated quit status.

Findings  Recruitment proved difficult. Considerable time and effort were needed to attract young smokers. Advertising and recruitment had to be tailored to project settings and educational activities proved essential to raise the profile of smoking as an issue. Thirty-nine participants [8.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.0–11.2%] were CO-validated quitters at 3 months and 11 of these (2.4%, 95% CI 1.90–3.8%) were also validated quitters at 12 months. Older participants were more likely to be abstinent at 3 months.

Conclusions  The overall quit rate was disappointing. As a result of low participant numbers, it was impossible to draw conclusions about the relative effectiveness of different project approaches. These findings give little support to the case for developing dedicated youth cessation services in Scotland. They also highlight the difficulties of undertaking ‘real-world’ evaluations of pilot youth cessation projects. More action is needed to develop environments which enhance young smokers' motivation to quit and their ability to sustain quit attempts.