Preventing growth in amphetamine use: long-term effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) from early adolescence to early adulthood
Article first published online: 4 AUG 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 104, Issue 10, pages 1691–1699, October 2009
How to Cite
Riggs, N. R., Chou, C.-P. and Pentz, M. A. (2009), Preventing growth in amphetamine use: long-term effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) from early adolescence to early adulthood. Addiction, 104: 1691–1699. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02666.x
- Issue published online: 8 SEP 2009
- Article first published online: 4 AUG 2009
- Submitted 20 August 2008; initial review completed 27 October 2008; final version accepted 22 April 2009
- drug use;
- early adulthood;
Aim The aim of the current study was to examine the long-term effect of an early adolescent substance abuse prevention program on trajectories and initiation of amphetamine use into early adulthood.
Design Eight middle schools were assigned randomly to a program or control condition. The randomized controlled trial followed participants through 15 waves of data, from ages 11–28 years. This longitudinal study design includes four separate periods of development from early adolescence to early adulthood.
Setting The intervention took place in middle schools.
Participants A total of 1002 adolescents from one large mid-western US city were the participants in the study.
Intervention The intervention was a multi-component community-based program delivered in early adolescence with a primary emphasis on tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use.
Measures At each wave of data collection participants completed a self-report survey that included questions about life-time amphetamine use.
Findings Compared to a control group, participants in the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) intervention condition had reduced growth (slope) in amphetamine use in emerging adulthood, a lower amphetamine use intercept at the commencement of the early adulthood and delayed amphetamine use initiation.
Conclusions The pattern of results suggests that the program worked first to prevent amphetamine use, and then to maintain the preventive effect into adulthood. Study findings suggest that early adolescent substance use prevention programs that focus initially on the ‘gateway’ drugs have utility for long-term prevention of amphetamine use.