• 1
    World Health Organization (WHO). The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2002.
  • 2
    World Health Organization (WHO). Action for Tobacco Control. Guideline for Controlling and Monitoring the Tobacco Epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1998.
  • 3
    US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). Clinical Practical Guidelines. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence—2008 Update. Rockville, MD: USDHHS, PHS; 2008.
  • 4
    Raw M., McNeill A. The prevention of tobacco-related disease. Addiction 1994; 89: 15059.
  • 5
    Abrams D. B., Orleans C. T., Niaura R. S., Goldstein M. G., Prochaska J. O., Velicer W. Integrating individual and public health perspectives for treatment of tobacco dependence under managed health care: a combined stepped-care and matching model. Ann Behav Med 1996; 18: 290304.
  • 6
    Noar S. M., Benac C. N., Harris M. S. Does tailoring matter? Meta-analytic review of tailored print health behavior change interventions. Psychol Bull 2007; 133: 67393.
  • 7
    Wang J., Etter J. F. Administering an effective health intervention for smoking cessation online: the international users of Stop-Tabac. Prev Med 2004; 39: 9628.
  • 8
    Cassell M. M., Jackson C., Cheuvront B. Health communication on the internet: an effective channel for health behavior change? J Health Commun 1998; 3: 719.
  • 9
    Murray E. Internet-delivered treatments for long-term conditions: strategies, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Exp Rev Pharmacoeconom Outcome Res 2008; 8: 26172.
  • 10
    Modis T. The end of the internet rush. Technol Forecast Soc Change 2005; 72: 93843.
  • 11
    Pew Internet and American Life Project. Tracking Survey, November–December 2008. Available at: (accessed 20 May 2009).
  • 12
    Bock B., Graham A., Sciamanna C., Krishnamoorthy J., Whiteley J., Carmona-Barros R. et al. Smoking cessation treatment on the internet: content, quality, and usability. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: 20719.
  • 13
    Etter J. F. A list of the most popular smoking cessation web sites and a comparison of their quality. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: S27–S34.
  • 14
    Etter J. F. Internet-based smoking cessation programs. Int J Med Informat 2006; 75: 1106.
  • 15
    Kroeze W., Werkman A., Brug J. A systematic review of randomized trials on the effectiveness of computer-tailored education on physical activity and dietary behaviors. Ann Behav Med 2006; 31: 20523.
  • 16
    Van Den Berg M. H., Schoones J. W., Vliet Vlieland T. P. Internet-based physical activity interventions: a systematic review of the literature. J Med Internet Res 2007; 9: e26.
  • 17
    Blonde L., Parkin C. G. Internet resources to improve health care for patients with diabetes. Endocr Pract 2006; 12: 1317.
  • 18
    Vandelanotte C., Spathonis K. M., Eakin E. G., Owen N. Website-delivered physical activity interventions a review of the literature. Am J Prev Med 2007; 33: 5464.
  • 19
    Portnoy D. B., Scott-Sheldon L. A., Johnson B. T., Carey M. P. Computer-delivered interventions for health promotion and behavioral risk reduction: a meta-analysis of 75 randomized controlled trials, 1988–2007. Prev Med 2008; 47: 316.
  • 20
    Strecher V. J. Computer-tailored smoking cessation materials: a review and discussion. Patient Educ Couns 1999; 36: 10717.
  • 21
    Walters S. T., Wright J. A., Shegog R. A review of computer and internet-based interventions for smoking behavior. Addict Behav 2006; 31: 26477.
  • 22
    Bessell T. L., McDonald S., Silagy C. A., Anderson J. N., Hiller J. E., SansomLN. Do internet interventions for consumers cause more harm than good? A systematic review. Health Expect 2002; 5: 2837.
  • 23
    Tramer M. R., Reynolds D. J., Moore R. A., McQuay H. J. Impact of covert duplicate publication on meta-analysis: a case study. BMJ 1997; 315: 63540.
  • 24
    An L. C., Klatt C., Perry C. L., Lein E. B., Hennrikus D. J., Pallonen U. E. et al. The RealU online cessation intervention for college smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2008; 47: 1949.
  • 25
    Brendryen H., KraftP. Happy Ending: a randomized controlled trial of a digital multi-media smoking cessation intervention. Addiction 2008; 103: 47884.
  • 26
    Brendryen H., Drozd F., KraftP. A digital smoking cessation program delivered through internet and cell phone without nicotine replacement (Happy Ending): randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2008; 10: e51.
  • 27
    Japuntich S. J., Zehner M. E., Smith S. S., Jorenby D. E., Valdez J. A., Fiore M. C. et al. Smoking cessation via the internet: a randomized clinical trial of an internet intervention as adjuvant treatment in a smoking cessation intervention. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: S59–S67.
  • 28
    McKay H. G., Danaher B. G., Seeley J. R., Lichtenstein E., Comparing Gau J. Two web-based smoking cessation programs: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2008; 10: e40.
  • 29
    Munoz R. F., Lenert L. L., Delucchi K., Stoddard J., Perez J. E., Penilla C. et al. Toward evidence-based internet interventions: a Spanish/English web site for international smoking cessation trials. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: 7787.
  • 30
    Patten C. A., Croghan I. T., Meis T. M., Decker P. A., Pingree S., Colligan R. C. et al. Randomized clinical trial of an internet-based versus brief office intervention for adolescent smoking cessation. Patient Educ Couns 2006; 64: 24958.
  • 31
    Pike K. J., Rabius V., McAlister A., GeigerA. American Cancer Society's QuitLink: randomized trial of internet assistance. Nicotine Tob Res 2007; 9: 41520.
  • 32
    Prochaska J. O., Butterworth S., Redding C. A., Burden V., Perrin N., Leo M. et al. Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring and HRIs with multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Prev Med 2008; 46: 22631.
  • 33
    Strecher V. J., Shiffman S., West R. Randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy. Addiction 2005; 100: 6828.
  • 34
    Swartz L. H., Noell J. W., Schroeder S. W., Ary D. V. A randomised control study of a fully automated internet based smoking cessation programme. Tob Control 2006; 15: 712.
  • 35
    Peters J. L., Sutton A. J., Jones D. R., Abrams K. R., Rushton L. Comparison of two methods to detect publication bias in meta-analysis. JAMA 2006; 295: 67680.
  • 36
    L'Abbé K. A., Detsky A. S., O'Rourke K. Meta-analysis in clinical research. Ann Intern Med 1987; 107: 22433.
  • 37
    Review Manager (RevMan) [Computer Program], version 4.2 for Windows. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; 2003.
  • 38
    Higgins J. P., Thompson S. G., Deeks J. J., Altman D. G. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003; 327: 55760.
  • 39
    Higgins J., Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.5 [updated May 2005], 3rd edn. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
  • 40
    An L. C., Perry C. L., Lein E. B., Klatt C., Farley D. M., Bliss R. L. et al. Strategies for increasing adherence to an online smoking cessation intervention for college students. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: S7–12.
  • 41
    US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Clinical Practice Guideline, 00-0032 edn. Rockville, MD: USDHHS, PHS; 2000.
  • 42
    Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action. A Social Cognitive Theory. New York: Academic Press; 1986.
  • 43
    Pennebaker J. W. Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychol Sci 1997; 8: 1626.
    Direct Link:
  • 44
    Prochaska J. O., DiClemente C. C. Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. J Consul Clin Psychol 1983; 51: 3905.
  • 45
    West R. The clinical significance of ‘small’ effects of smoking cessation treatments. Addiction 2007; 102: 5069.
  • 46
    Hughes J. R., Keely J., Naud S. Shape of the relapse curve and long-term abstinence among untreated smokers. Addiction 2004; 99: 2938.
  • 47
    Lancaster T., Stead L. Physician advice for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 4: CD000165.
  • 48
    Stead L. F., Perera R., Lancaster T. Telephone counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3: CD002850.
  • 49
    Lancaster T., Stead L. F. Self-help interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 3: CD001118.
  • 50
    Stead L. F., Lancaster T. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 2: CD001007.
  • 51
    Lancaster T., Stead L. F. Individual Behavioural Counselling for Smoking Cessation (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, Issue 2. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004.
  • 52
    Severson H. H., Gordon J. S., Danaher B. G., AkersL. evaluation of a web-based cessation program for smokeless tobacco users. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10: 38191.
  • 53
    Burri M., Baujard V., Etter J. F. A qualitative analysis of an internet discussion forum for recent ex-smokers. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: S13–S19.
  • 54
    Cobb N. K., Graham A. L., Bock B. C., Papandonatos G., Abrams D. B. Initial evaluation of a real-world internet smoking cessation system. Nicotine Tob Res 2005; 7: 20716.
  • 55
    Etter J. F. Comparing the efficacy of two internet-based, computer-tailored smoking cessation programs: a randomized trial. J Med Internet Res 2005; 7: e2.
  • 56
    Strecher V. J., Shiffman S., West R. Moderators and mediators of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program among nicotine patch users. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: S95–101.
  • 57
    Stoddard J. L., Augustson E. M., Mabry P. L. The importance of usability testing in the development of an internet-based smoking cessation treatment resource. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: S87–S93.
  • 58
    Glasgow R. E. eHealth evaluation and dissemination research. American J Preventive Med 2007; 32: S119–S126.
  • 59
    Strecher V. Internet methods for delivering behavioral and health-related interventions (eHealth). Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2007; 3: 5376.
  • 60
    Benowitz N. L., Jacob P., III, Ahijevych K., Jarvis M. J., Hall S., LeHouezec J. et al. Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation. Nicotine Tob Res 2002; 4: 14959.
  • 61
    Cotten S. R., Gupta S. S. Characteristics of online and offline health information seekers and factors that discriminate between them. Soc Sci Med 2004; 59: 1795806.
  • 62
    Danaher B. G., Hart L. G., McKay H. G., Severson H. H. Measuring participant rurality in web-based interventions. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: 228.
  • 63
    Stoddard J. L., Augustson E. M. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS). Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: S77–S85.
  • 64
    Koo M., Skinner H. Challenges of internet recruitment: a case study with disappointing results. J Med Internet Res 2005; 7: e6.
  • 65
    Michie S., Abraham C. Advancing the science of behaviour change: a plea for scientific reporting. Addiction 2008; 103: 140910.