Reduced nicotine content cigarettes: effects on toxicant exposure, dependence and cessation
Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010
© 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 105, Issue 2, pages 343–355, February 2010
How to Cite
Hatsukami, D. K., Kotlyar, M., Hertsgaard, L. A., Zhang, Y., Carmella, S. G., Jensen, J. A., Allen, S. S., Shields, P. G., Murphy, S. E., Stepanov, I. and Hecht, S. S. (2010), Reduced nicotine content cigarettes: effects on toxicant exposure, dependence and cessation. Addiction, 105: 343–355. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02780.x
- Issue published online: 11 JAN 2010
- Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010
- Submitted 29 September 2008; initial review completed 6 January 2009; final version accepted 13 August 2009
- Biomarkers of exposure;
- compensatory smoking;
- nicotine dependence;
- reduced nicotine cigarettes;
- tobacco cessation;
- tobacco withdrawal
Aims To examine the effects of reduced nicotine cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, dependence and abstinence.
Design Randomized, parallel arm, semi-blinded study.
Setting University of Minnesota Tobacco Use Research Center.
Interventions Six weeks of: (i) 0.05 mg nicotine yield cigarettes; (ii) 0.3 mg nicotine yield cigarettes; or (iii) 4 mg nicotine lozenge; 6 weeks of follow-up.
Measurements Compensatory smoking behavior, biomarkers of exposure, tobacco dependence, tobacco withdrawal and abstinence rate.
Findings Unlike the 0.3 mg cigarettes, 0.05 mg cigarettes were not associated with compensatory smoking behaviors. Furthermore, the 0.05 mg cigarettes and nicotine lozenge were associated with reduced carcinogen exposure, nicotine dependence and product withdrawal scores. The 0.05 mg cigarette was associated with greater relief of withdrawal from usual brand cigarettes than the nicotine lozenge. The 0.05 mg cigarette led to a significantly higher rate of cessation than the 0.3 mg cigarette and a similar rate as nicotine lozenge.
Conclusion The 0.05 mg nicotine yield cigarettes may be a tobacco product that can facilitate cessation; however, future research is clearly needed to support these preliminary findings.