• Cognitive–behavioural therapy;
  • depression;
  • mood management;
  • smoking cessation;
  • telephone counselling


Aims  To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms.

Design  Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up at 6 and 12 months. The control intervention consisted of eight sessions of proactive telephone counselling. The mood management intervention was an integration of the control intervention with a mood management component. This component consisted of a self-help mood management manual, two more preparatory proactive telephone counselling sessions and supplementary homework assignments and advice.

Setting  Dutch national smoking cessation quitline.

Participants  A total of 485 daily smokers with past major depression, according to the DSM-IV.

Measurements  The primary outcome measure was prolonged abstinence and secondary outcome measures were 7-day point prevalence abstinence and depressive symptoms.

Findings  The mood management intervention resulted in significantly higher prolonged abstinence rates at 6- and 12-month follow-up (30.5% and 23.9% in experimental condition, 22.3% and 14.0% in the control condition). The odds ratios were 1.60 (95% CI 1.06–2.42) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.22–3.14) for both follow-ups. The mood management intervention did not seem to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms.

Conclusions  Adding a mood management component to telephone counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with a past major depression increases cessation rates without necessarily reducing depressive symptoms.