Impulsivity and socio-economic status interact to increase the risk of gambling onset among youth
Article first published online: 15 SEP 2010
© 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 105, Issue 12, pages 2176–2183, December 2010
How to Cite
Auger, N., Lo, E., Cantinotti, M. and O'Loughlin, J. (2010), Impulsivity and socio-economic status interact to increase the risk of gambling onset among youth. Addiction, 105: 2176–2183. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03100.x
- Issue published online: 3 NOV 2010
- Article first published online: 15 SEP 2010
- Submitted 23 December 2009; initial review completed 12 March 2010; final version accepted 7 June 2010
- educational status;
- effect modifiers;
- proportional hazards models;
- residence characteristics;
- social class
Aims To determine if impulsivity and socio-economic status (SES) interact to influence gambling onset in youth.
Design Longitudinal study of grade 7 students followed for 8 years.
Setting Montréal, Canada.
Participants A total of 628 adult students aged 12.6 years on average at cohort inception.
Measurements Impulsivity and SES (parent education, area deprivation) were collected during secondary school. Age of gambling onset was collected retrospectively when participants were aged 20.3 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the association between time to first report of gambling and interaction terms for each of impulsivity and parent education, and impulsivity and area deprivation accounting for sex and ethnicity.
Findings Median (interquartile range) age of gambling onset was 17.0 (4.0) years. Impulsivity independently increased the risk of gambling onset among participants with no university-educated parent [hazard ratio (HR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.1–1.5] and those living in highly deprived areas (HR 1.7; 1.5–2.0). Impulsivity was not associated with gambling onset among high SES youth. Among participants with high impulsivity, risks were elevated for those with no university-educated parent relative to one or more university-educated parent (HR 1.7; 1.1–2.7), and for participants living in deprived relative to advantaged areas (HR 5.0; 2.6–9.6). SES was not associated with gambling onset among participants with low impulsivity.
Conclusions Impulsivity is a risk factor for gambling onset among low but not high SES youth, and low SES influences gambling onset primarily among impulsive youth. Gambling prevention programmes may need to consider potential interaction between impulsivity and SES.