• 1
    Royal College of Physicians. Harm Reduction in Nicotine Addiction. Helping People Who Can't Quit. A report by the Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians, October 2007. London: RCP.
  • 2
    Martinet Y., Fagerström K., McNeill A., Godfrey F. Harm reduction strategies for tobacco smoking: report from an ERS Research Seminar. Sleep Breath 2006; 2: 3023.
  • 3
    American Association of Public Health Physicians. The Case for Harm Reduction for Control of Tobacco-Related Illness and Death. 26 October 2008. Green Cove Springs, FL: AAPHP.
  • 4
    Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products. European Commission, February 2008. Brussels: European Commission; 2008.
  • 5
    Physicians for a Smoke-free Canada. The Snus Experience. Report. October 2007. Ottawa, Ontario: Physicians for a Smoke-free Canada; 2007.
  • 6
    International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization (IARC/WHO). Methods for Evaluating Tobacco Control Policies. 12. Lyon: IARC/WHO; 2008.
  • 7
    Stenbeck M., Hagquist C., Rosén M. The association of snus and smoking behavior: a cohort analysis of Swedish males in the 1990s. Addiction 2009; 1004: 157985.
  • 8
    Ramstrom L., Foulds J. Role of snus in initiation and cessation of tobacco smoking in Sweden. Tob Control 2006; 15: 2104.
  • 9
    Nadim M. Reise- Og Ferieundersøkelsen 2006 [Travel- and holiday survey 2006]; Dokumentasjonsrapport 2007/42. Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå; 2007.
  • 10
    Øverland S., Hetland J., Aarø L. E. Relative harm of snus and cigarettes: what do Norwegian adolescents say? Tob Control 2008; 17: 4225.
  • 11
    Lund K. E., Tefre E., Amundsen A., Nordlund S. Røyking, Bruk Av Snus Og Annen Risikoatferd Blant Studenter [Smoking, use of snus and other risk behaviour among university students]. Tidskr nor legeforen 2008; 128: 180811.
  • 12
    Hellevik O. Jakten på den norske lykken [On the lookout for the Norwegian happiness]. Norsk monitor 1985–2007. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget; 2008.
  • 13
    Lund M. K. Ø., Skretting A., Lund K. E. Rusmiddelbruk blant unge voksne, 21–30 år Resultater fra spørreskjemaundersøkelser 1998, 2002 og 2006 [Use of drugs among young adults aged 21–30 years. Results from the surveys 1998, 2002 and 2006]. SIRUS rapport 8/2007. Oslo: Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning; 2007.
  • 14
    Lund K. E., McNeill A., Scheffels J. The use of snus for quitting smoking compared with medicinal products. Nicotine Tob Res 2010; 12: 81722.
  • 15
    Lund M., Lindbak R. Norwegian Tobacco Statistics 1973–2006. Sirus skrifter no. 3/2007. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research; 2007.
  • 16
    Henley S. J., Connell C. J., Richter P., Husten C., Pechacek T., Calle E. et al. Tobacco-related disease mortality among men who switched from cigarettes to spit tobacco. Tob Control 2007; 16: 228.
  • 17
    Levy D. T., Mumford E. A., Cummings K. M., Gilpin E. A., Giovino G., Hyland A., Sweanor D. et al. The relative risks of a low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco product compared with smoking cigarettes: estimates of a panel of experts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomakers Prev 2004; 13: 203542.
  • 18
    Gartner C. E., Hall W. H., Vos T. H., Bertram M. Y., Wallace A. L., Lim S. S. et al. Assessment of Swedish snus for tobacco harm reduction: an epidemiological modeling study. Lancet 2007; 369: 20104.
  • 19
    Gilljam H., Galanti M. R. Role of snus (oral moist snuff) in smoking cessation and smoking reduction in Sweden. Addiction 2003; 98: 11839.
  • 20
    Hagquist C. E. I. Health inequalities among adolescents: the impact of academic orientation and parents' education. Eur J Public Health 2006; 17: 216.
  • 21
    Galanti M. R., Rosendahl I., Wickholm S. The development of tobacco use in adolescence among ‘snus starters’ and ‘cigarette starters’: an analysis of the Swedish ‘BROMS’ cohort. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10: 31523.
  • 22
    Timberlake D. S., Huh J., Lakon C. M. Use of propensity score matching in evaluating smokeless tobacco as a gateway to smoking. Nicotine Tob Res 2009; 11: 45562.
  • 23
    Severson H. H., Forester K. A., Biglan A. Use of smokeless tobacco is a risk factor for cigarette smoking. Nicotine Tob Res 2007; 9: 13317.
  • 24
    Kozlowski L. T., Strasser A. A., Giovino G. A., Erickson P. A., Terza J. V. Applying the risk/use equilibrium: use medicinal nicotine now for harm reduction. Tob Control 2001; 10: 2013.