• 1
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57: 12268.
  • 2
    Mokdad A. H., Marks J. S., Stroup D. F., Gerberding J. L. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 2004; 291: 123845.
  • 3
    Pierce J. P., Naquin M., Gilpin E., Giovino G., Mills S., Marcus S. Smoking initiation in the United States: a role for worksite and college smoking ban. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83: 100913.
  • 4
    United States Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1998.
  • 5
    Cummings K. M., Morley C. P., Horan J. K., Steger C., Leavell N. R. Marketing to America's youth: evidence from corporate documents. Tob Control 2002; 11: i18i31.
  • 6
    Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report for 2006. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission; 2009.
  • 7
    Kopstein A. Tobacco Use in America: Findings from the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Analytic Series: A-15, DHHS Publication no. SMA 02-3622. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies; 2001.
  • 8
    Giovino G. A., Sidney S., Gfroerer J. C., O'Malley P. M., Allen J. A., Richter P. A. et al. Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S67S81.
  • 9
    Kaufman N. J., Castrucci B. C., Mowery P., Gerlach K. K., Emont S., Orleans T. Changes in adolescent cigarette-brand preference, 1989 to 1996. Am J Health Behav 2004; 28: 5462.
  • 10
    Hersey J. C., Ng S. W., Nonnemaker J. M., Mowery P., Thomas K. Y., Vilsaint M. et al. Are menthol cigarettes a starter product for youth? Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: 40313.
  • 11
    Cummings K. M., Hyland A., Peckacek T. F., Orlandi M., Lynn W. R. Comparisons of recent trends in adolescent and adult cigarette smoking behavior and brand preferences. Tob Control 1997; 6: S31S37.
  • 12
    Moolchan E. T. Adolescent menthol smokers: will they be a harder target for cessation? Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S93S95.
  • 13
    Werley M. S., Coggins C. R. E., Lee P. N. Possible effects on smokers of cigarette mentholation: a review of the evidence relating to key research questions. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2007; 47: 189203.
  • 14
    Garten S., Falkner R. V. Role of mentholated cigarettes in increased nicotine dependence and greater risk of tobacco-attributable disease. Prev Med 2004; 38: 7938.
  • 15
    Henningfield J. E., Benowitz N. L., Ahijevych K., Garrett B. E., Connolly G. N., Wayne G. F. Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research. Nicotine Tob Res 2003; 5: 911.
  • 16
    Hyland A., Garten S., Giovino G. A., Cummings K. M. Mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation: findings from COMMIT. Tob Control 2002; 11: 1359.
  • 17
    Okuyemi K. S., Ahluwalia J. S., Ebersole-Robinson M., Catley D., Mayo M. S., Resnicow K. Does menthol attenuate the effect of bupropion among African American smokers? Addiction 2003; 98: 113871393.
  • 18
    Okuyemi K. S., Ebersole-Robinson M., Nazir N., Ahluwalia J. S. African American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences. J Nat Med Assoc 2004; 96: 120811.
  • 19
    Wackowski O., Delnevo C. D. Menthol cigarettes and indicators of tobacco dependence among adolescents. Addict Behav 2007; 32: 19649.
  • 20
    Carpenter C., Cook P. Cigarette taxes and youth smoking: new evidence from national, state, and local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. J Health Econ 2008; 27: 28799.
  • 21
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State cigarette minimum price laws—United States, 2009. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2010; 59: 38992.
  • 22
    DeCicca P., Kenkel D., Mathios A. Cigarette taxes and the transition from youth to adult smoking: smoking initiation, cessation, and participation. J Health Econ 2008; 27: 90417.
  • 23
    Liang L., Chaloupka F., Nichter M., Clayton R. Price policies and youth smoking. Addiction 2001; 98: 10522.
  • 24
    Thomson C., Fisher L., Winickoff J., Colditz G., Carmargo C., King C. et al. State tobacco excise taxes and adolescent smoking behaviors in the United States. J Public Health Manag Pract 2004; 10: 4906.
  • 25
    Chaloupka F., Cummings K., Morley C., Horan J. Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies. Tob Control 2002; 11: I62I72.
  • 26
    White V., Gilpin E., White M., Pierce J. How do smokers control their cigarette expenditures. Nicotine Tob Res 2005; 7: 62535.
  • 27
    Shavers V. L., Fagan P., Alexander L. A. J., Clayton R., Doucet J., Baezconde-Garbanati L. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998–1999 and 2001–2002. J Epidemiol Commun Health 2006; 60: ii34ii43.
  • 28
    Clark P., Schooley M., Pierce B., Schulman J., Hartman A., Schmitt C. Impact of home smoking rules on smoking patterns among adolescents and young adults. Prev Chronic Dis 2006; 3: 113.
  • 29
    Green M., McCausland K., Xiao H., Duke J., Vallone D., Heaton C. A closer look at smoking among young adults: where tobacco control should focus its attention. Am J Pub Health 2007; 97: 142733.
  • 30
    Hahn E., Rayens M., Chirila C., Riker C., Paul T., Warnick T. Effectiveness of a Quit and Win contest with a low income population. Prev Med 2004; 39: 54350.
  • 31
    Robinson M. L., Berlin I., Moolchan E. T. Tobacco smoking trajectory and associated ethnic differences among adolescent smokers seeking cessation treatment. J Adolesc Health 2004; 35: 21724.
  • 32
    Allen B., Unger J. B. Sociocultural correlates of menthol cigarette smoking among adult African Americans in Los Angeles. Nicotine Tob Res 2007; 9: 44751.
  • 33
    White V. M., White M. M., Freeman K., Gilpin E. A., Pierce J. P. Cigarette promotional offers: who takes advantage? Am J Prev Med 2006; 30: 22531.
  • 34
    Castro F. G. Physiological, psychological, social, and cultural influences on the use of menthol cigarettes among Blacks and Hispanics. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S29S41.