• 1
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57: 12268.
  • 2
    Mokdad A. H., Marks J. S., Stroup D. F., Gerberding J. L. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 2004; 291: 123845.
  • 3
    Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report for 2006. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission; 2009.
  • 4
    Giovino G. A., Sidney S., Gfroerer J. C., O'Malley P. M., Allen J. A., Richter P. A. et al. Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6:S67S81.
  • 5
    Kabat G. C., Morabia A., Wynder E. L. Comparison of smoking habits of Blacks and Whites in a case–control study. Am J Public Health 1991; 81: 14836.
  • 6
    United States Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco use among U.S. racial/ethnic minority groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1998.
  • 7
    Ahijevych K., Parsley L. A. Smoke constituent exposure and stage of change in Black and White women cigarette smokers. Addict Behav 1999; 24: 11520.
  • 8
    Gandhi K. K., Foulds J., Steinberg M. B., Lu S. E., Williams J. M. Lower quit rates among African American and Latino menthol cigarette smokers at a tobacco treatment clinic. Int J Clin Pract 2009; 63: 3607.
  • 9
    Hyland A., Garten S., Giovino G. A., Cummings K. M. Mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation: findings from COMMIT. Tob Control 2002; 11: 1359.
  • 10
    Okuyemi K. S., Ahluwalia J. S., Ebersole-Robinson M., Catley D., Mayo M. S., Resnicow K. Does menthol attenuate the effect of bupropion among African American smokers? Addiction 2003; 98: 1138793.
  • 11
    Garten S., Falkner R. V. Role of mentholated cigarettes in increased nicotine dependence and greater risk of tobacco-attributable disease. Prev Med 2004; 38: 7938.
  • 12
    Henningfield J. E., Benowitz N. L., Ahijevych K., Garrett B. E., Connolly G. N., Wayne G. F. Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research. Nicotine Tob Res 2003; 5: 911.
  • 13
    Benowitz N. L., Herrera B., Jacob P. III. Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 24: 67337.
  • 14
    Schmeltz I., Scholotzhauer W. S. Benzo(a)pyrene, phenols and other products from pyrolysis of the cigarette additive, (d,1)-menthol. Nature 1968; 219: 3701.
  • 15
    Eccles R. Menthol and related cooling compounds. J Pharm Pharmacol 1994; 46: 61830.
  • 16
    Jarvik M. E., Tashkin D. P., Caskey N. H., McCarthy W. J., Rosenblatt M. R. Mentholated cigarettes decrease puff volume of smoke and increase carbon monoxide absorption. Physiol Behav 1994; 56: 56370.
  • 17
    Clark P. I., Gautam S., Gerson L. W. Effect of menthol cigarettes on biochemical markers of smoke exposure among black and white smokers. Chest 1996; 110: 11948.
  • 18
    Pletcher M. J., Hulley B. J., Houston T., Kiefe C. I., Benowitz N., Sidney S. Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 191522.
  • 19
    Hyland A., Garten S., Giovino G. A., Cummings K. M. Mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation: findings from COMMIT. Tob Control 2002; 11: 1359.
  • 20
    Okuyemi K. S., Ebersole-Robinson M., Nazir N., Ahluwalia J. S. African American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences. J Natl Med Assoc 2004; 96: 120811.
  • 21
    Garten S., Falkner R. V. Continual smoking of mentholated cigarettes may mask the early warning symptoms of respiratory disease. Prev Med 2003; 37: 2916.
  • 22
    Harris K. J., Okuyemi K. S., Catley D., Mayo M. S., Ge B., Ahluwalia J. S. Predictors of smoking cessation among African Americans enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of bupropion. Prev Med 2004; 38: 498502.
  • 23
    Hymowitz N., Mouton C., Edkholdt H. Menthol cigarette smoking in African Americans and Whites. Tob Control 1995; 4: 1945.
  • 24
    Okuyemi K. S., Faseru B., Cox L. S., Bronars C. A., Ahluwalia J. Relationship between menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation among African American light smokers. Addiction 2007; 102: 197986.
  • 25
    Dinno A., Glantz S. Tobacco control policies are egalitarian: a vulnerabilities perspective on clean indoor air laws, cigarette prices, and tobacco use disparities. Soc Sci Med 2009; 68: 143947.
  • 26
    Farrelly M. C., Evans W. N., Sfekas A. E. S. The impact of workplace smoking bans: results from a national survey. Tob Control 1999; 8: 2727.
  • 27
    Fichtenberg C. M., Glantz S. A. Effect of smoke-free workplaces on smoking behavior: Systematic review. Br Med J 2002; 325: 188.
  • 28
    Hahn E. J., Rayens M. K., Butler K. M., Zhang M., Durbin E., Steinke D. Smoke-free laws and adult smoking prevalence. Prev Med 2008; 47: 2069.
  • 29
    Hahn E. J., Rayens M. K., Langley R. E., Darville A., Dignan M. Time since smoke-free law and smoking cessation behaviors. Nicotine Tob Res 2009; 11: 10115. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntp1086.
  • 30
    Mills A. L., Messer K., Gilpin E. A., Pierce J. P. The effect of smoke-free homes on adult smoking behavior: a review. Nicotine Tob Res 2009; 11: 113141.
  • 31
    Shavers V. L., Fagan P., Alexander L. A. J., Clayton R., Doucet J., Baezconde-Garbanati L. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998–1999 and 2001–2002. J Epidemiol Commun Health 2006; 60: ii34ii43.
  • 32
    Deverell M., Randolph C., Albers A., Hamilton W., Siegel M. Diffusion of local restaurant smoking regulations in Massachusetts: identifying disparities in health protection for population subgroups. J Public Health Manag Pract 2006; 12: 2629.
  • 33
    Gardiner P. S. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6(Suppl.): S55S65.
  • 34
    Moore R., Annechino R., Lee J. Unintended consequences of smoke-free bar policies for low-SES women in three California counties. Am J Prev Med 2009; 37: S138S143.
  • 35
    Ellis J., Gwynn C., Garg R. et al. Secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers nationally and in New York City. Nicotine Tob Res 2009; 11: 36270.