Nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers with similar consumptive patterns

Authors

  • Pebbles Fagan,

    Corresponding author
    1. National Cancer Institute, Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
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  • Eric T. Moolchan,

    1. Alkermes Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA
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  • Alton Hart, Jr.,

    1. Division of Quality Health Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Center on Health Disparities, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
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  • Allison Rose,

    1. Clinical Research Directorate, Clinical Monitoring Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA
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  • Deirdre Lawrence,

    1. National Cancer Institute, Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
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  • Vickie L. Shavers,

    1. National Cancer Institute, Health Services and Economics Branch, Applied Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA
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  • James Todd Gibson

    1. Information Management Systems, Silver Spring, MD, USA
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Pebbles Fagan, National Cancer Institute, Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Boulevard, EPN 4034, Bethesda, MD 20892-7337, USA. E-mail: faganp@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT

Aims  This study examines the associations between usual cigarette brand (i.e. menthol, non-menthol) and markers for nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors.

Design  The 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys were pooled to conduct secondary data analysis.

Setting  National data were collected using in-person and telephone computer-assisted interviews by the United States Census Bureau among civilian, non-institutionalized people aged 15 years and older.

Participants  Data were analyzed among daily current smokers aged 18+ (n = 46 273).

Measurements  The associations between usual cigarette brand and time to first cigarette within 5 and 30 minutes after waking, quit attempts in the past 12 months and length of smoking abstinence in the past 12 months were examined. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were stratified by smoking intensity: ≤5, 6–10, 11–19 and 20+ cigarettes per day.

Findings  Menthol smokers reported a mean of 13.05 compared with 15.01 cigarettes per day among non-menthol smokers (P < 0.001). Multivariate results showed that among smokers consuming 6–10 cigarettes per day, menthol smokers were significantly more likely than non-menthol smokers to consume their first cigarette within 5 minutes after waking (odds ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.05,1.43). The multivariate models did not show significant associations between usual cigarette brand and quit attempts in past 12 months or duration of smoking abstinence >2 weeks in the past 12 months.

Conclusions  Findings from this national survey of daily smokers demonstrate that menthol smokers in the United States who report consuming 6–10 cigarettes per day show greater signs of nicotine dependence than comparable non-menthol smokers.

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