• 1
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 1997–2001. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005; 54: 6258.
  • 2
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Smoking and Health; 2001.
  • 3
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1998.
  • 4
    RiesL. A. G., MelbertD., KrapchoM., StinchcombD. G., HowladerN., HornerM. J. et al., editors. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2005. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute: 2008. Available at: (accessed 12 November 2009) based on November 2007 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site. (Archived at on 13 October 2010).
  • 5
    Pinsky P. F. Racial and ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence: how much is explained by differences in smoking patterns? (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17: 101724.
  • 6
    Haiman C. A., Stram D. O., Wilkens L. R., Pike M. C., Kolonel L. N., Henderson B. E. et al. Ethnic and racial differences in the smoking-related risk of lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 33342.
  • 7
    Trinidad D. R., Perez-Stable E. J., Emery S. L., White M. M., Grana R. A., Messer K. S. Intermittent and light daily smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res 2009; 11: 20310.
  • 8
    Stewart J. H. Lung carcinoma in African Americans: a review of the literature. Cancer [Review]. 2001 ; 91: 247682.
  • 9
    Flenaugh E. L., Henriques-Forsythe M. N. Lung cancer disparities in African Americans: health versus health care. Clin Chest Med 2006; 27: 4319.
  • 10
    Fagan P., Moolchan E. T., Lawrence D., Fernander A., Ponder P. K. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum. Addiction 2007; 102: 529.
  • 11
    Abidoye O., Ferguson M. K., Salgia R. Lung carcinoma in African Americans. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2007; 4: 11829.
  • 12
    Albano J. D., Ward E., Jemal A., Anderson R., Cokkinides V. E., Murray T. et al. Cancer mortality in the United States by education level and race. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99: 138494.
  • 13
    Chu K. C., Miller B. A., Springfield S. A. Measures of racial/ethnic health disparities in cancer mortality rates and the influence of socioeconomic status. J Natl Med Assoc 2007; 99: 1092100, 102–4.
  • 14
    Vidrine J., Reitzel L., Wetter D. The role of tobacco in cancer health disparities. Curr Oncol Rep 2009; 11: 47581.
  • 15
    Byers T. Two decades of declining cancer mortality: progress with disparity. Annu Rev Public Health 2010; 31: 12132.
  • 16
    Ragin C. C., Langevin S., Rubin S., Taioli E. Review of studies on metabolic genes and cancer in populations of African descent. Genet Med 2010; 12: 128.
  • 17
    Hebert J. R., Kabat G. C. Menthol cigarette smoking and oesophageal cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: 3744.
  • 18
    Ciftci O., Caliskan M., Gullu H., Yildirir A., Muderrisoglu H. Mentholated cigarette smoking induced alterations in left and right ventricular functions in chronic smokers. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2008; 8: 11622.
  • 19
    Ciftci O., Topcu S., Caliskan M., Gullu H., Erdogan D., Yildirim E. et al. Smoking mentholated cigarettes impairs coronary microvascular function as severely as does smoking regular cigarettes. Acta Cardiol 2008; 63: 13540.
  • 20
    Etzel C. J., Kachroo S., Liu M., D'Amelio A., Dong Q., Cote M. L. et al. Development and validation of a lung cancer risk prediction model for African-Americans. Cancer Prev Res 2008; 1: 25565.
  • 21
    Murray R. P., Connett J. E., Skeans M. A., Tashkin D. P. Menthol cigarettes and health risks in Lung Health Study data. Nicotine Tob Res 2007; 9: 1017.
  • 22
    Garten S., Falkner R. V. Role of mentholated cigarettes in increased nicotine dependence and greater risk of tobacco-attributable disease. Prev Med 2004; 38: 7938.
  • 23
    Stellman S. D., Chen Y., Muscat J. E., Djordjevic M. V., Richie J. P. Jr, Lazarus P. et al. Lung cancer risk in white and black Americans. Ann Epidemiol 2003; 13: 294302.
  • 24
    Garten S., Falkner R. V. Continual smoking of mentholated cigarettes may mask the early warning symptoms of respiratory disease. Prev Med 2003; 37: 2916.
  • 25
    Brooks D. R., Palmer J. R., Strom B. L., Rosenberg L. Menthol cigarettes and risk of lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158: 60916; discussion 17–20.
  • 26
    Carpenter C. L., Jarvik M. E., Morgenstern H., McCarthy W. J., London S. J. Mentholated cigarette smoking and lung-cancer risk. Ann Epidemiol 1999; 9: 11420.
  • 27
    Friedman G. D., Sadler M., Tekawa I. S., Sidney S. Mentholated cigarettes and non-lung smoking related cancers in California, USA. J Epidemiol Commun Health 1998; 52: 202.
  • 28
    Richardson T. L. African-American smokers and cancers of the lung and of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Is menthol part of the puzzle? West J Med 1997; 166: 18994.
  • 29
    Sidney S., Tekawa I. S., Friedman G. D., Sadler M. C., Tashkin D. P. Mentholated cigarette use and lung cancer. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 72732.
  • 30
    Kabat G. C. Aspects of the epidemiology of lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers in the United States. Lung Cancer 1996; 15: 120.
  • 31
    Kabat G. C., Hebert J. R. Use of mentholated cigarettes and oropharyngeal cancer. Epidemiology 1994; 5: 1838.
  • 32
    Kabat G. C., Hebert J. R. Use of mentholated cigarettes and lung cancer risk. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 65103.
  • 33
    Ahijevych K., Garrett B. E. Menthol pharmacology and its potential impact on cigarette smoking behavior. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S1728.
  • 34
    Wayne G. F., Connolly G. N. Application, function, and effects of menthol in cigarettes: a survey of tobacco industry documents. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S4354.
  • 35
    Ahijevych K., Parsley L. A. Smoke constituent exposure and stage of change in black and white women cigarette smokers. Addict Behav 1999; 24: 11520.
  • 36
    Clark P. I., Gautam S., Gerson L. W. Effect of menthol cigarettes on biochemical markers of smoke exposure among black and white smokers. Chest 1996; 110: 11948.
  • 37
    McCarthy W. J., Caskey N. H., Jarvik M. E., Gross T. M., Rosenblatt M. R., Carpenter C. Menthol vs nonmenthol cigarettes: effects on smoking behavior. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 6772.
  • 38
    Miller G. E., Jarvik M. E., Caskey N. H., Segerstrom S. C., Rosenblatt M. R., McCarthy W. J. Cigarette mentholation increases smokers' exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 1994; 2: 15460.
  • 39
    Jarvik M. E., Tashkin D. P., Caskey N. H., McCarthy W. J., Rosenblatt M. R. Mentholated cigarettes decrease puff volume of smoke and increase carbon monoxide absorption. Physiol Behav 1994; 56: 56370.
  • 40
    Benowitz N. L., Herrera B., Jacob P. III. Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 310: 120815.
  • 41
    Muscat J. E., Chen G., Knipe A., Stellman S. D., Lazarus P., Richie J. P. Jr. Effects of menthol on tobacco smoke exposure, nicotine dependence, and NNAL glucuronidation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18: 3541.
  • 42
    Henningfield J. E., Benowitz N. L., Ahijevych K., Garrett B. E., Connolly G. N., Wayne G. F. Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research. Nicotine Tob Res 2003; 5: 911.
  • 43
    Okuyemi K. S., Ahluwalia J. S., Ebersole-Robinson M., Catley D., Mayo M. S., Resnicow K. Does menthol attenuate the effect of bupropion among African American smokers. Addiction 2003; 98: 138793.
  • 44
    Collins C. C., Moolchan E. T. Shorter time to first cigarette of the day in menthol adolescent cigarette smokers. Addict Behav 2006; 31: 14604.
  • 45
    Hersey J. C., Ng S. W., Nonnemaker J. M., Mowery P., Thomas K. Y., Vilsaint M. C. et al. Are menthol cigarettes a starter product for youth. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: 40313.
  • 46
    Okuyemi K. S., Ebersole-Robinson M., Nazir N., Ahluwalia J. S. African-American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences. J Natl Med Assoc 2004; 96: 120811.
  • 47
    Harris K. J., Okuyemi K. S., Catley D., Mayo M. S., Ge B., Ahluwalia J. S. Predictors of smoking cessation among African-Americans enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of bupropion. Prev Med 2004; 38: 498502.
  • 48
    Pletcher M. J., Hulley B. J., Houston T., Kiefe C. I., Benowitz N., Sidney S. Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 191522.
  • 49
    Okuyemi K. S., Faseru B., Sanderson Cox L., Bronars C. A., Ahluwalia J. S. Relationship between menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation among African American light smokers. Addiction 2007; 102: 197986.
  • 50
    Robles G. I., Singh-Franco D., Ghin H. L. A review of the efficacy of smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies in nonwhite populations. Clin Ther 2008; 30: 80012.
  • 51
    Gandhi K. K., Foulds J., Steinberg M. B., Lu S. E., Williams J. M. Lower quit rates among African American and Latino menthol cigarette smokers at a tobacco treatment clinic. Int J Clin Pract 2009; 63: 3607.
  • 52
    Gundersen D. A., Delnevo C. D., Wackowski O. Exploring the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation, in a nationally representative sample of adults. Prev Med 2009; 49: 5537.
  • 53
    Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report for 2006. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission; 2009. Available at: (accessed 29 July 2010). (Archived at on 13 October 2010).
  • 54
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The NSDUH Report: Use of Menthol Cigarettes. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2009.
  • 55
    US Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Current Population Survey: Design and Methodology. 2002; Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
  • 56
    US Department of Commerce, Census Bureau. 2006. National Cancer Institute and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Co-sponsored Tobacco Use Special Cessation Supplement to the Current Population Survey (2003). Available at: (accessed 15 January 2010). (Archived at and, respectively, on 13 October 2010).
  • 57
    Bowler M. B., Ilg R. E., Miller S., Robison E., Polivka A. Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003. Washington, DC: US Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2003. Available at: (accessed 23 July 2009). (Archived at on 13 October 2010).
  • 58
    Haddock C. K., Lando H., Klesges R. C., Talcott G. W., Renaud E. A. A study of the psychometric and predictive properties of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence in a population of young smokers. Nicotine Tob Res 1999; 1: 5966.
  • 59
    Baker T. B., Piper M. E., McCarthy D. E., Bolt D. M., Smith S. S., Kim S. Y. et al. Time to first cigarette in the morning as an index of ability to quit smoking: implications for nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res 2007; 9: S55570.
  • 60
    Hyland A., Garten S., Giovino G. A., Cummings K. M. Mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation: findings from COMMIT. Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation. Tob Control 2002; 11: 1359.
  • 61
    Research Triangle Institute. SUDAAN (Release 9.0.1) [Computer Software]. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute; 2005.
  • 62
    Coggins C. R., Murrelle E. L., Carchman R. A., Heidbreder C. Light and intermittent cigarette smokers: a review (1989–2009). Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2009; 207: 34363.
  • 63
    Reitzel L. R., Costello T. J., Mazas C. A., Vidrine J. I., Businelle M. S., Kendzor D. E. et al. Low-level smoking among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers: relationships with demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and cessation. Nicotine Tob Res 2009; 11: 17884.
  • 64
    Cummings K. M., Hyland A., Pechacek T. F., Orlandi M., Lynn W. R. Comparison of recent trends in adolescent and adult cigarette smoking behaviour and brand preferences. Tob Control 1997; 6: S317.
  • 65
    Allen B. Jr, Unger J. B. Sociocultural correlates of menthol cigarette smoking among adult African Americans in Los Angeles. Nicotine Tob Res 2007; 9: 44751.
  • 66
    Giovino G. A. Epidemiology of tobacco use in the United States. Oncogene 2002; 21: 732640.
  • 67
    Altman D. G., Schooler N., Basil M. D. Alcohol and cigarette advertising on billboards. Health Educ Re 1991; 6: 48790.
  • 68
    Cummings K. M., Giovino G., Mendicino A. J. Cigarette advertising and black-white differences in brand preference. Public Health Rep 1987; 102: 698701.
  • 69
    Balbach E. D., Gasior R. J., Barbeau E. M. R.J. Reynolds' targeting of African Americans: 1988–2000. Am J Public Health 2003; 93: 8227.
  • 70
    Landrine H., Klonoff E. A., Fernandez S., Hickman N., Kashima K., Parekh B. et al. Cigarette advertising in Black, Latino, and White magazines, 1998–2002: an exploratory investigation. Ethn Dis 2005; 15: 637.
  • 71
    Kreslake J. M., Wayne G. F., Alpert H. R., Koh H. K., Connolly G. N. Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults. Am J Public Health 2008; 98: 168592.
  • 72
    Kreslake J. M., Wayne G. F., Connolly G. N. The menthol smoker: tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10: 70515.
  • 73
    Connolly G. N., Alpert H. R., Wayne G. F., Koh H. Trends in nicotine yield in smoke and its relationship with design characteristics among popular US cigarette brands, 1997–2005. Tob Control 2007; 16.
  • 74
    Celebucki C. C., Wayne G. F., Connolly G. N., Pankow J. F., Chang E. I. Characterization of measured menthol in 48 U.S. cigarette sub-brands. Nicotine Tob Res 2005; 7: 52331.