• 1
    Sterling T. D., Weinkam J. J. Smoking characteristics by type of employment. J Occup Environ Med 1976; 18: 74354.
  • 2
    Nelson D. E., Emont S. L., Brackbill R. M., Cameron L. R., Peddicord J., Fiore M. C. Cigarette smoking prevalence by occupation in the United States: a comparison between 1978 to 1980 and 1987 to 1990. J Occup Med 1994; 36: 51625.
  • 3
    Weinkam J. J., Sterling T. D. Changes in smoking characteristics by type of employment from 1979 to 1979/80. Am J Ind Med 1987; 11: 53961.
  • 4
    US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Cigarette use among adults employed full time, by occupational category. DHHS Publication no. SMA 09-4434, NSDUH Series H-36. 2008. Department of Health and Human Services Rockville MD.
  • 5
    Brackbill R., Frazier T., Shilling S. Smoking characteristics of US workers, 1978–1980. Am J Ind Med 1988; 13: 541.
  • 6
    Davis R. M. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. JAMA 1998; 280: 19479.
  • 7
    Stark M. J., Rohde K., Maher J. E., Pizzacani B. A., Dent C. W., Bard R. et al. The impact of clean indoor air exemptions and preemption policies on the prevalence of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen among nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers. Am J Public Health 2007; 97: 145763.
  • 8
    Howard J. Smoking is an occupational hazard. Am J Ind Med 2004; 46: 1619.
  • 9
    Lee D. J., LeBlanc W., Fleming L. E., Gómez-Marin O., Pittman T. Trends in US smoking rates in occupational groups: the National Health Interview Survey 1987–1994. J Occup Environ Med 2004; 46: 53848.
  • 10
    Sorensen G. Worksite tobacco control programs: the role of occupational health. Respir Physiol 2001; 128: 89102.
  • 11
    Shopland D. R., Anderson C. M., Burns D. M., Gerlach K. K. Disparities in smoke-free workplace policies among food service workers. J Occup Environ Med 2004; 46: 34756.
  • 12
    Abidoye O., Ferguson M. K., Salgia R. Lung carcinoma in African-Americans. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2007; 4: 11829.
  • 13
    Garten S., Falkner R. V. Continual smoking of mentholated cigarettes may mask the early warning symptoms of respiratory disease. Prev Med 2003; 37: 2916.
  • 14
    Benowitz N. L., Herrera B., Jacob P. 3rd. Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 310: 120815.
  • 15
    Caraballo R. S. Menthol and Demographics, FDA Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee, 30 March 2010. Accessed 25 July 2010
  • 16
    White V. M., White M. M. Cigarette promotional offers: who takes advantage? Am J Prev Med 2006; 30: 22531.
  • 17
    Shavers V. L., Fagan P., Alexander L. A., Clayton R., Doucet J., Baezconde-Garbanati L. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998–1999 and 2001–2002. J Epidemiol Commun Health 2006; 60: ii3443.
  • 18
    Yerger V. B., Przewoznik J., Malone R. E. Racialized geography, corporate activity, and health disparities: tobacco industry targeting of inner cities. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2007; 18: 1038.
  • 19
    Kreslake J. M., Wayne G. F., Alpert H. R., Koh H. K., Connolly G. N. Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults. Am J Public Health 2008; 98: 168592.
  • 20
    Cummings K. M., Giovino G., Mendicino A. J. Cigarette advertising and black–white differences in brand preference. Public Health Rep 1987; 102: 698701.
  • 21
    Gardiner P. S. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S5565.
  • 22
    Landrine H., Klonoff E. A., Fernandez S., Hickman N., Kashima K., Parekh B. et al. Cigarette advertising in Black, Latino, and White magazines 1998–2002: an exploratory investigation. Ethn Dis 2005; 15: 637.
  • 23
    Mackay J., Amos A. Women and tobacco. Respirology 2003; 8: 12330.
  • 24
    Ferris W. G., Connolly G. N. Application, function, and effects of menthol in cigarettes: a survey of tobacco industry documents. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S4354.
  • 25
    Sutton C. D., Robinson R. G. The marketing of menthol cigarettes in the United States: populations, messages, and channels. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S8391.
  • 26
    United States Department of Labor. Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity. 2008, US Department of Labor, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC. November 2009, Report 1020.
  • 27
    Standard Occupational Classification Codes. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010. United States Department of Labor, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC. Available at: (accessed 25 July 2010).
  • 28
    Siller A. B., Tompkins L. The big four: analyzing complex sample survey data using SAS®, SPSS®, STATA®, and SUDAAN®. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland, Paper 172-31. Available at: (accessed 1 July 2009).
  • 29
    Dippo C. S., Fay R. E., Morganstein D. H. Computing variances from complex samples with replicate weights. Proc Survey Res Meth Sect Am Stat Assoc. Washington, DC; American Statistical Association; 1984.
  • 30
    Clark P. I., Gardiner P. S., Djordjevic M. V., Leischow S. J., Robinson R. G. Menthol cigarettes: setting the research agenda. In Swan GE, Balfour DJK, editors. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S59.
  • 31
    Henningfield J. E., Djordjevic M. V. Menthol cigarettes: research needs and challenges. In Swan GE, Balfour DJK, editors. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S116.
  • 32
    Castro F. G. Physiological, psychological, social, and cultural influences on the use of menthol cigarettes among Blacks and Hispanics. In Swan GE, Balfour DJK, editors. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S2941.
  • 33
    Wayne G. F., Connolly G. N. Application, function, and effects of menthol in cigarettes: a survey of tobacco industry documents. In Swan GE, Balfour DJK, editors. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: S4354.
  • 34
    Sorenson G., Barbeau E., Hunt M. K., Emmons K. Reducing social disparities in tobacco use: a social-contextual model for reducing tobacco use among blue-collar workers. Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 2309.
  • 35
    Sorenson G., Pechacek T., Pallonen U. Occupational and worksite norms and attitudes about smoking cessation. Am J Public Health 1986; 76: 5449.
  • 36
    Barbeau E. M., Krieger N., Soobader M. Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000. Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 26978.
  • 37
    Sterling T., Weinkam J. The confounding of occupation and smoking and its consequences. Soc Sci Med 1990; 30: 45767.
  • 38
    Youth Employment. Bureau of Labor Statistic's Current Population Survey, NIOSH, CDC. Available at: (accessed 1 July 2010).
  • 39
    Hersey J. C., Ng S. W., Nonnemaker J. M., Mowery P., Thomas K. Y., Vilsaint M. C. et al. Are menthol cigarettes a starter product for youth? Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8: 40313.
  • 40
    Collins C. C., Moolchan E. T. Shorter time to first cigarette of the day in menthol adolescent cigarette smokers. Addict Behav 2006; 31: 14604.
  • 41
    Moolchan E. T., Franken F. H., Jaszyna-Gasior M. Adolescent nicotine metabolism: ethnoracial differences among dependent smokers. Ethn Dis 2006; 16: 23943.
  • 42
    Wackowski O., Delnevo C. D. Menthol cigarettes and indicators of tobacco dependence among adolescents. Addict Behav 2007; 32: 19649.
  • 43
    Farkas A. J., Gilpin E. A., White M. M., Pierce J. P. Association between household and workplace smoking restrictions and adolescent smoking. JAMA 2000; 284: 71722.
  • 44
    Siegel M., Albers A. B., Cheng D. M., Hamilton W. L., Biener L. Local restaurant smoking regulations and the adolescent smoking initiation process: results of a multilevel contextual analysis among Massachusetts youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008; 162: 47783.
  • 45
    Muilenburg J. L., Legge J. S. African-American adolescents and menthol cigarettes: smoking behavior among secondary school students. J Adolesc Health 2008; 43: 5705.
  • 46
    Gerlach K. K., Shopland D. R., Hartman A. M. Workplace smoking policies in the United States: results from a national survey of more than 100 000 workers. Tob Control 1997; 6: 199206.
  • 47
    Shopland D. R., Gerlach K. K., Burns D. M., Hartman A. M., Gibson J. T. State-specific trends in smoke free workplace policy coverage: the current population survey tobacco use supplement, 1993 to 1999. J Occup Environ Med 2001; 43: 6806.