• 1
    ZatonskiW., ManczukM., SulkowskaU., editors. HEM Project Team. Closing the health gap in the European Union. Warsaw, Poland: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Division, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology; 2008. Available at:,139&cmd=1 (accessed 20 December 2010). (Archived by WebCite® at
  • 2
    Szücs S., Sárváry A., McKee M., Ádány R. Could the high level of cirrhosis in central and eastern Europe be due partly to the quality of alcohol consumed? An exploratory investigation. Addiction 2005; 100: 53642.
  • 3
    Popova S., Rehm J., Patra J., Zatonski W. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries. Alcohol Alcohol 2007; 42: 46573.
  • 4
    Lachenmeier D. W., Rehm J., Gmel G. Surrogate alcohol: what do we know and where do we go? Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007; 31: 161324.
  • 5
    Lachenmeier D. W., Sarsh B., Rehm J. The composition of alcohol products from markets in Lithuania and Hungary, and potential health consequences: a pilot study. Alcohol Alcohol 2009; 44: 93102.
  • 6
    Rehm J., Kanteres F., Lachenmeier D. W. Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010; 29: 42636.
  • 7
    Lachenmeier D. W., Kanteres F., Kuballa T., López M. G., Rehm J. Ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Mexico (Tequila, Mezcal, Bacanora, Sotol) and Guatemala (Cuxa): market survey and risk assessment. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009; 6: 34960.
  • 8
    Lachenmeier D. W., Sohnius E.-M., Attig R., López M. G. Quantification of selected volatile constituents and anions in Mexican agave spirits (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, Bacanora). J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54: 39115.
  • 9
    Ejim O. S., Brands B., Rehm J., Lachenmeier D. W. Composition of surrogate alcohol from South-Eastern Nigeria. Afr J Drug Alcohol Stud 2007; 6: 6574.
  • 10
    Kanteres F., Lachenmeier D. W., Rehm J. Alcohol in Mayan Guatemala: consumption, distribution, production and composition of cuxa. Addiction 2009; 104: 7529.
  • 11
    Kanteres F., Rehm J., Lachenmeier D. W. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contaminaton. Sci Total Environ 2009; 407: 58618.
  • 12
    Lachenmeier D. W., Kuballa T., Lima M. C. P., Nóbrega I. C. C., Kerr-Corrêa F., Kanteres F. et al. Ethyl carbamate analysis in German fruit spirits and Brazilian sugarcane spirits (cachaça): improved sample cleanup with automated parallel evaporation. Deut Lebensm Rundsch 2009; 105: 50712.
  • 13
    Lachenmeier D. W., Anh P. T. H., Popova S., Rehm J. The quality of alcohol products in Vietnam and its implications for public health. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009; 6: 2090101.
  • 14
    Leitz J., Kuballa T., Rehm J., Lachenmeier D. W. Chemical analysis and risk assessment of diethyl phthalate in alcoholic beverages with special regard to unrecorded alcohol. PLoS One 2009; 4: e8127.
  • 15
    Lachenmeier D. W., Ganss S., Rychlak B., Rehm J., Sulkowska U., Skiba M. et al. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 175769.
  • 16
    Roth M., Hartmann S., Renner R., Hörtig W. Risikoorientiertes Probenmanagement in Baden-Württemberg [Risk-orientated sample management in Baden-Württemberg]. Deut Lebensm Rundsch 2007; 103: 4552.
  • 17
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 44. Lyon: Alcohol Drinking; 1988.
  • 18
    European Parliament and Council. Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. Off J Europ Comm 2002; L31: 124.
  • 19
    European Council. Council Regulation (EEC) No 315/93 laying down Community procedures for contaminants in food. Off J Europ Comm 1993; L37: 13.
  • 20
    Baden-Württemberg. Jahresbericht 2007. Überwachung von Lebensmitteln, Bedarfsgegenständen, Kosmetika und Futtermitteln[Annual report 2007. Control of food, commodities, cosmetics and feed]. Stuttgart, Germany: Ministerium für Ernährung und Ländlichen Raum Baden-Württemberg; 2008. Available at: http://www.untersuchungsaemter-bw (accessed 20 December 2010). (Archived by WebCite® at
  • 21
    Lachenmeier D. W., Kanteres F., Rehm J. Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism. Addiction 2009; 104: 53350.
  • 22
    Lachenmeier D. W., Sohnius E.-M. The role of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism in the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages: evidence from a large chemical survey. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46: 290311.
  • 23
    European Parliament and Council. Regulation (EC) No 110/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 on the definition, description, presentation, labelling and the protection of geographical indications of spirit drinks and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 1576/89. Off J Europ Union 2008; L39: 1654.
  • 24
    Paine A. J., Dayan A. D. Defining a tolerable concentration of methanol in alcoholic drinks. Hum Exp Toxicol 2001; 20: 5638.
  • 25
    Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. 2009. Available at: (accessed 16 May 2009).
  • 26
    Huckenbeck W., Freudenstein P., Jeszenszky E., Scheil H. G. Congeners in spirits produced by moonshine distillers. Blutalkohol 2003; 40: 294301.
  • 27
    Lang K., Vali M., Szücs S., Adany R., McKee M. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia. Alcohol Alcohol 2006; 41: 44650.
  • 28
    Lachenmeier D. W., Fügel D. Reduction of nitrosamines in beer—review of a success story. Brew Sci 2007; 60: 849.
  • 29
    Sohnius E.-M., Huni W., Lachenmeier D. W. Nachweis von Lösungsmittelkontaminationen alkoholischer Getränke [Determination of solvent contaminations in alcoholic beverages]. Lebensmittelchemie 2008; 62: 145.
  • 30
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 96. Lyon, France: Alcohol Consumption and Ethyl Carbamate; 2010.
  • 31
    European Council. Council Directive 93/99/EEC of 29 October 1993 on the subject of additional measures concerning the official control of foodstuffs. Off J Europ Comm 1993; L290: 147.
  • 32
    International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO/IEC 17 025:2005 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization; 2005.
  • 33
    European Commission. Commission Regulation (EC) No 2870/2000 laying down Community reference methods for the analysis of spirits drinks. Off J Europ Comm 2000; L333: 2046.
  • 34
    Lachenmeier D. W. Rapid quality control of spirit drinks and beer using multivariate data analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. Food Chem 2007; 101: 82532.
  • 35
    Arzberger U., Lachenmeier D. W. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis as a novel method for characterizing alcoholic strength, density, and total dry extract in spirits and liqueurs. Food Anal Methods 2008; 1: 1822.
  • 36
    Lachenmeier D. W., Sviridov O., Frank W., Athanasakis C. Rapid determination of ethanol in spirit drinks using steam distillation and densitometry. Deut Lebensm Rundsch 2003; 99: 43944.
  • 37
    Lachenmeier D. W., Burri P. A., Fauser T., Frank W., Walch S. G. Rapid determination of alcoholic strength of egg liqueur using steam distillation and oscillation-type densimetry with peristaltic pumping. Anal Chim Acta 2005; 537: 37784.
  • 38
    Lachenmeier D. W., Walch S. G., Kessler W. Using experimental design to optimise precision of steam distillation for determining alcoholic strength in spirits. Eur Food Res Technol 2006; 223: 2616.
  • 39
    Kelly J., Chapman S., Brereton P., Bertrand A., Guillou C., Wittkowski R. Gas chromatographic determination of volatile congeners in spirit drinks: interlaboratory study. J AOAC Int 1999; 82: 137588.
  • 40
    Lachenmeier D. W., Frank W., Kuballa T. Application of tandem mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography to the routine analysis of ethyl carbamate in stone-fruit spirits. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2005; 19: 10812.
  • 41
    Lachenmeier D. W., Attig R., Frank W., Athanasakis C. The use of ion chromatography to detect adulteration of vodka and rum. Eur Food Res Technol 2003; 218: 10510.
  • 42
    Sproll C., Ruge W., Andlauer C., Godelmann R., Lachenmeier D. W. HPLC analysis and safety assessment of coumarin in foods. Food Chem 2008; 109: 4629.
  • 43
    Lachenmeier D. W., Frank W., Humpfer E., Schäfer H., Keller S., Mörtter M. et al. Quality control of beer using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Eur Food Res Technol 2005; 220: 21521.
  • 44
    Lachenmeier D. W., Humpfer E., Fang F., Schutz B., Dvortsak P., Sproll C. et al. NMR-spectroscopy for nontargeted screening and simultaneous quantification of health-relevant compounds in foods: the example of melamine. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57: 71949.
  • 45
    World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Geneva: WHO; 2006.
  • 46
    European Council. Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off J Europ Comm 1998; L330: 3254.
  • 47
    Weinverordnung in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 14. Mai 2002 (BGBl. I S. 1583), zuletzt geändert durch Artikel 1 der Verordnung vom 7. November 2008 [Regulation about wine in the version of notification at 14 May 2002 (BGBl. I p. 1583), last amendmend by Art. 1 of regulation of 7 November 2008]. BGBl I 2008; 2166.
  • 48
    Codex alimentarius. Maximum Levels for Lead (CODEX STAN 230-2001, Rev. 1-2003). 2003. Available at: (accessed 19 November 2007). (Archived by WebCite® at
  • 49
    L'Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV). Compendium of International Methods of Wine and Must Analysis. Edition 2009. Paris: International Organization of Vine and Wine; 2009.
  • 50
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Ethyl carbamate and hydrocyanic acid in food and beverages. EFSA J 2007; 551: 144.
  • 51
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Summary of Evaluations Performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. Available at: (accessed 20 December 2010).
  • 52
    Lachenmeier D. W., Haupt S., Schulz K. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2008; 50: 31321.
  • 53
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Opinion of the Scientific Committee on a request from EFSA related to a harmonised approach for risk assessment of substances which are both genotoxic and carcinogenic. EFSA J 2005; 282: 131.
  • 54
    Rehm J., Room R., Monteiro M., Gmel G., Graham K., Rehn N. et al. Alcohol use. In: EzzatiM., LopezA. D., RodgersA., MurrayC. J. L., editors. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks. Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors, vol. 1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004, p. 9591108.
  • 55
    Lachenmeier D. W. Reducing harm from alcohol: what about unrecorded products? Lancet 2009; 374: 977.
  • 56
    Rehm J., Sulkowska U., Manczuk M., Boffetta P., Powles J., Popova S. et al. Alcohol accounts for a high proportion of premature mortality in central and eastern Europe. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: 45867.
  • 57
    Nemtsov A. V. Estimates of total alcohol consumption in Russia, 1980–1994. Drug Alcohol Depend 2000; 58: 13342.
  • 58
    Benegal V., Gururaj G., Murthy P. WHO Collaborative Project on Unrecorded consumption of Alcohol. Karnataka, India/Bangalore, India: National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences; 2003. Available at: (accessed 20 December 2010). (Archived by WebCite® at
  • 59
    Norström T. Estimating changes in unrecorded alcohol consumption in Norway using indicators of harm. Addiction 1998; 93: 15318.
  • 60
    Rehm J., Room R., Monteiro M., Gmel G., Graham K., Rehn N. et al. Alcohol as a risk factor for global burden of disease. Eur Addict Res 2003; 9: 15764.
  • 61
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 2009. Available at: (accessed 30 July 2009).
  • 62
    Felter S. P., Vassallo J. D., Carlton B. D., Daston G. P. A safety assessment of coumarin taking into account species-specificity of toxicokinetics. Food Chem Toxicol 2006; 44: 46275.
  • 63
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Diethyl Phthalate (CASRN 84-66-2). Integrated Risk Information System. Washington: US EPA; 2003, Available at: (accessed 14 May 2009). (Archived by WebCite® at
  • 64
    World Health Organization (WHO). Diethyl Phthalate. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 52. Geneva: WHO; 2003.
  • 65
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Coumarin in flavourings and other food ingredients with flavouring properties. EFSA J 2008; 793: 115.
  • 66
    Codex Alimentarius. General Requirements for Natural Flavourings (CAC/GL 29.1987). 1985. Available at: (accessed 31 July 2008).
  • 67
    Vavasour E., Renwick A. G., Engeli B., Barlow S., Castle L., DiNovi M. et al. Ethyl carbamate. In: WHO Food Additives Series 55. Safety Evaluation of Certain Contaminants in Food, Prepared by the sixty-fourth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Geneva: WHO and FAO; 2006, p. 205316.