• 1
    Rehm J., Mathers C., Popova S., Thavorncharoensap M., Teerawattananon Y. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet 2009; 373: 222333.
  • 2
    Zatonski W., Manczuk M., Sulkowska U., HEM Project Team. Closing the Health Gap in European Union. Warsaw: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Division, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology; 2008.
  • 3
    Rehm J., Zatonski W., Taylor B., Anderson P. Epidemiology and alcohol policy in Europe. Addiction 2010; 106 (Suppl. 1): 119.
  • 4
    Rehm J., Sulkowska U., Manczuk M., Boffetta P., Powles J. Popova S. Alcohol accounts for a high proportion of premature mortality in central and eastern Europe. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: 45867.
  • 5
    Rehm J., Anderson P., Kanteres F., Parry C. D., Samokhvalov A. V. Patra J. Alcohol, Social Development and Infectious Disease. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; 2009. ISBN: 978-1-77052-444-6.
  • 6
    Thacker S. B., Berkelman R. L. Public health surveillance in the United States. Epidemiol Rev 1988; 10: 16490.
  • 7
    World Health Assembly (WHA). Resolution 58.26. Public Health Problems Caused by the Harmful Use of Alcohol. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.
  • 8
    World Health Assembly (WHA). Resolution 61.13. Strategies to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.
  • 9
    Warren C. W., Lee J., Lea V., Goding A., O'Hara B. Evolution of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) 1998–2008. Glob Health Promot 2009; 16: 437.
  • 10
    Rehm J., Rehn N., Room R., Monteiro M., Gmel G. Jernigan D. The global distribution of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking. Eur Addict Res 2003; 9: 14756.
  • 11
    Rehm J., Room R., Monteiro M., Gmel G., Graham K. Rehn N. Alcohol use. In: EzzatiM., LopezA. D., RodgersA., MurrayC. J. L., editors. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors, vol. 1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004, p. 9591109.
  • 12
    Rehm J., Baliunas D., Borges G. L. G., Graham K., Irving H. M. Kehoe T. The relation between different dimensions of alcohol consumption and burden of disease—an overview. Addiction 2010; 105: 81743.
  • 13
    Ezzati M., Lopez A. D., Rodgers A. D., Vander Horn S., Murray C. J. L. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 2002; 360: 134760.
  • 14
    Murray C. J. L., Lopez A. D., Black R., Mathers C. D., Shibuya K., Ezzati M. Global Burden of Disease 2005: call for collaborators. Lancet 2007; 370: 10910.
  • 15
    Rehm J., Room R. Monitoring of alcohol use and attributable harm from an international perspective. Contemp Drug Probl 2009; 36: 57588.
  • 16
    Leifman H., Osterberg E., Ramstedt M. Alcohol in Postwar Europe, ECAS II: A Discussion of Indicators on Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Harm. Stockholm: National Public Health Institute; 2002. Available at: (accessed 16 July 2010).
  • 17
    Babor T., Caetano R., Casswell S., Edwards G., Giesbrecht N. Graham K. Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity. Research and Public Policy, 2nd edn. Oxford and London: Oxford University Press; 2010.
  • 18
    McKee M., Suzcs S., Sarvary A., Adany R., Kirvanov N. et al. The composition of surrogate alcohols consumed in Russia. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2005; 29: 18848.
  • 19
    Rehm J., Kanteres F., Lachenmeier D. W. Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010; 29: 42636. [Epub ahead of print 19 January].
  • 20
    Gmel G., Rehm J. Measuring alcohol consumption. Contemp Drug Probl 2004; 31: 467540.
  • 21
    Rehm J., Klotsche J., Patra J. Comparative quantification of alcohol exposure as risk factor for global burden of disease. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2007; 16: 6676.
  • 22
    Groves R. Survey Errors and Survey Costs. Errors in Survey Costs. New York: Wiley; 1989.
  • 23
    Rehm J., Gmel G. Aggregating dimensions of alcohol consumption to predict medical and social consequences. J Subst Abuse 2000; 12: 15568.
  • 24
    Bagnardi V., Zatonski W., Scotti L., La Vecchia C., Corrao G. Does drinking pattern modify the effect of alcohol on the risk of coronary heart disease? Evidence from a meta-analysis. J Epidemiol Commun Health 2008; 62: 6159.
  • 25
    Roerecke M., Rehm J. Irregular heavy drinking occasions and risk of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 171: 63344.
  • 26
    Gmel G., Givel J. C., Yersin B., Daeppen J. B. Injury and repeated injury—what is the link with acute consumption, binge drinking and chronic heavy alcohol use? Swiss Med Wkly 2007; 137: 6428.
  • 27
    Rehm J., Taylor B., Mohapatra S., Irving H., Baliunas D. Patra J. Alcohol as a risk factor for liver cirrhosis—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010; 29: 43745. [Epub ahead of print 20 January].
  • 28
    Rehm J., Kehoe T., Gmel G., Stinson F., Grant B. Statistical modelling of volume of alcohol exposure for epidemiological studies of population health: the example of the US. Popul Health Metr 2010; 8: 3.
  • 29
    Lachenmeier D. W., Schoeberl K., Kanteres F., Kuballa T., Sohnius E. M., Rehm J. Is contaminated unrecorded alcohol a health problem in the European Union? A review of existing and methodological outline for future studies. Addiction 2011; 106 (Suppl. 1): 2030.
  • 30
    Rehm J., Taylor B., Room R. Global burden of disease from alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco. Drug Alcohol Rev 2006; 25: 50313.
  • 31
    Ezzati M., Lopez A., Rodgers A., Murray C. J. L. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks. Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.
  • 32
    Rothman K. J., Greenland S., Lash T. L. Modern Epidemiology, 3rd edn. Pennsylvania, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
  • 33
    Eide G., Heuch I. Attributable fractions: fundamental concepts and their visualization. Stat Methods Med Res 2001; 10: 15993.
  • 34
    Rehm J., Room R., Graham K., Monteiro M., Gmel G. Sempos C. The relationship of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking to burden of disease—an overview. Addiction 2003; 98: 120928.
  • 35
    Lopez A. D., Mathers C. D., Ezzati M., Jamison D. T., Murray D. J. L. Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. New York and Washington: Oxford University Press and the World Bank; 2006.
  • 36
    Puffer R., Griffith G. Patterns of Urban Mortality, Scientific Publication no. 151. Washington: Pan American Health Organization; 1967.
  • 37
    Zatonski W., Sulkowska U., Manczuk M., Rehm J., Lowenfels A. B., La Vecchia. Liver cirrhosis mortality in Europe, with special attention to central and eastern Europe. Eur Addict Res in press; 2010; 16: 193201.
  • 38
    Szucs S., Sarvary A., McKee M., Adany R. Could the high level of cirrhosis in central and eastern Europe be due partly to the quality of alcohol consumed? An exploratory investigation. Addiction 2005; 100: 53642.
  • 39
    Mahapatra P., Shibuya K., Lopez A. D., Coullare F., Notzon F. C., Rao C. Civil registration systems and vital statistics: successes and missed opportunities. Lancet 2007; 370: 165363.
  • 40
    Naghavi M., Makela S., Foreman K., O'Brien J., Pourmalek F., Lozano R. Algorithms for enhancing public health utility of national causes-of-death data. Popul Health Metr 2010; 8: 9.
  • 41
    Anderson P., Chisholm D., Fuhr D. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. Lancet 2009; 373: 223446.