Alcohol-related negative consequences among drinkers around the world

Authors

  • Kathryn Graham,

    Corresponding author
    1. Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, London, Ontario, Canada
    2. Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    3. Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    4. National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
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  • Sharon Bernards,

    1. Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, London, Ontario, Canada
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  • Ronald Knibbe,

    1. Social Epidemiology of Alcohol and Drug Use, Department of Health Promotion, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands
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  • Sylvia Kairouz,

    1. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Concordia University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
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  • Sandra Kuntsche,

    1. Addiction Info Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • Sharon C. Wilsnack,

    1. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA
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  • Thomas K. Greenfield,

    1. Alcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA
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  • Paul Dietze,

    1. School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
    2. Centre for Population Health, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
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  • Isidore Obot,

    1. Department of Psychology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
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  • Gerhard Gmel

    1. Alcohol Treatment Center, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
    2. Addiction Info Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland
    3. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    4. University of the West of England, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, UK
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Kathryn Graham, Social and Community Interventions and Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 100 Collip Circle, Suite 200, London, Ontario, Canada N6G 4X8. E-mail: kgraham@uwo.ca

ABSTRACT

Aims  This paper examines (i) gender and country differences in negative consequences related to drinking; (ii) relative rates of different consequences; and (iii) country-level predictors of consequences.

Design, setting and participants  Multi-level analyses used survey data from the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) collaboration.

Measurements  Measures included 17 negative consequences grouped into (i) high endorsement acute, (ii) personal and (iii) social. Country-level measures included average frequency and quantity of drinking, percentage who were current drinkers, gross domestic product (GDP) and Human Development Index (HDI).

Findings  Overall, the three groupings of consequences were reported by 44%, 12% and 7% of men and by 31%, 6% and 3% of women, respectively. More men than women endorsed all consequences, but gender differences were greatest for consequences associated with chronic drinking and social consequences related to male roles. The highest prevalence of consequences was in Uganda and lowest in Uruguay. Personal and social consequences were more likely in countries with higher usual quantity, fewer current drinkers and lower scores on GDP and HDI. However, significant interactions with individual-level quantity indicated a stronger relationship between consequences and usual quantity among drinkers in countries with lower quantity, more current drinkers and higher scores on GDP and HDI.

Conclusions  Both gender and country need to be taken into consideration when assessing adverse drinking consequences. Individual measures of alcohol consumption and country-level variables are associated with experiencing such consequences. Additionally, country-level variables affect the strength of the relationship between usual quantity consumed by individuals and adverse consequences.

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