Housewife or working mum—each to her own? The relevance of societal factors in the association between social roles and alcohol use among mothers in 16 industrialized countries
Article first published online: 27 JUL 2011
© 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 106, Issue 11, pages 1925–1932, November 2011
How to Cite
Kuntsche, S., Knibbe, R. A., Kuntsche, E. and Gmel, G. (2011), Housewife or working mum—each to her own? The relevance of societal factors in the association between social roles and alcohol use among mothers in 16 industrialized countries. Addiction, 106: 1925–1932. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03507.x
- Issue published online: 6 OCT 2011
- Article first published online: 27 JUL 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 25 MAY 2011 10:49AM EST
- Submitted 17 March 2010; initial review completed 28 June 2010; final version accepted 13 May 2011
- Alcohol use;
- gender income ratio;
- international comparisons;
- paid labour;
- social roles
Aims To investigate whether differences in gender–income equity at country level explain national differences in the links between alcohol use, and the combination of motherhood and paid labour.
Design Cross-sectional data in 16 established market economies participating in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS) study.
Setting Population surveys.
Participants A total of 12 454 mothers (aged 25–49 years).
Measurements Alcohol use was assessed as the quantity per drinking day. Paid labour, having a partner, gender–income ratio at country level and the interaction between individual and country characteristics were regressed on alcohol consumed per drinking day using multi-level modelling.
Findings Mothers with a partner who were in paid labour reported consuming more alcohol on drinking days than partnered housewives. In countries with high gender–income equity, mothers with a partner who were in paid labour drank less alcohol per occasion, while alcohol use was higher among working partnered mothers living in countries with lower income equity.
Conclusion In countries which facilitate working mothers, daily alcohol use decreases as female social roles increase; in contrast, in countries where there are fewer incentives for mothers to remain in work, the protective effect of being a working mother (with partner) on alcohol use is weaker. These data suggest that a country's investment in measures to improve the compatibility of motherhood and paid labour may reduce women's alcohol use.