No contractual constraints on publishing have been imposed by the funder of this study.
The distribution of alcohol consumption and the prevention paradox in Brazil
Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2011
© 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 107, Issue 1, pages 60–68, January 2012
How to Cite
Caetano, R., Mills, B., Pinsky, I., Zaleski, M. and Laranjeira, R. (2012), The distribution of alcohol consumption and the prevention paradox in Brazil. Addiction, 107: 60–68. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03567.x
- Issue online: 12 DEC 2011
- Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 13 JUL 2011 01:55PM EST
- Submitted 20 December 2010; initial review completed 4 March 2011; final version accepted 6 July 2011
- Alcohol problems;
- drinking patterns;
- population studies;
- prevention paradox
Aims To examine the proportion of self-reported alcohol consumed by different gender and age groups in Brazil over the past year, and to examine whether the ‘prevention paradox’ applies to Brazilian data on alcohol-related problems.
Design A multi-stage cluster sample, representative of the Brazilian household population.
Setting This study was conducted in Brazil between November 2005 and April 2006.
Participants Respondents were aged ≥ 14 years (n = 3007).
Measurements Measures included past year estimates of (i) number of standard drinks, (ii) frequency of binge drinking, and (iii) alcohol-related problems.
Findings The survey response rate was 66.4%. The top 2.5% of the drinkers by volume consume 14.9%, the top 5% consume 27.4% and the top 10% consume 44.2% of all alcohol consumed in Brazil. Men consume 77.8% of the total alcohol, and 18–29-year-olds consume 40.3%. Individuals below risky drinking guidelines for weekly volumetric intake account for 49–50% of all problem drinkers and 45–47% of all problem types reported. Individuals who do not binge or who binge infrequently (1–3 times/year) account for 50–51% of all problem drinkers and 45–46% of all reported problem types. Most binge drinkers are low-volume drinkers.
Conclusions Consistent with the prevention paradox literature, most drinking problems in Brazil are associated with low or moderate drinking. Binge drinking accounts more clearly for the distribution of alcohol problems than total volume consumed.