• 1
    Mathers B. M., Degenhardt L., Phillips B., Wiessing L., Hickman M., Strathdee S. A. et al. Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review. Lancet 2008; 372: 173345.
  • 2
    Aceijas C., Stimson G. V., Hickman M., Rhodes T. Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users. AIDS 2004; 18: 2295303.
  • 3
    European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). EMCDDA Annual Report 2010: the State of the Drugs Problem in Europe. Luxembourg: EMCDDA; 2010.
  • 4
    Kruglov Y. V., Kobyshcha Y. V., Salyuk T., Varetska O., Shakarishvili A., Saldanha V. P. The most severe HIV epidemic in Europe: Ukraine's national HIV prevalence estimates for 2007. Sex Transm Infect 2008; 84: i3741.
  • 5
    Schaub M., Chtenguelov V., Subata E., Weiler G., Uchtenhagen A. Feasibility of buprenorphine and methadone maintenance programmes among users of home made opioids in Ukraine. Int J Drug Policy 2010; 21: 22933.
  • 6
    Dumchev K. V., Soldyshev R., Qian H. Z., Zezyulin O. O., Chandler S. D., Slobodyanyuk P. et al. HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among hanka injection drug users in central Ukraine: a cross-sectional survey. Harm Reduct J 2009; 6: 23.
  • 7
    Taran Y. S., Johnston L. G., Pohorila N. B., Saliuk T. O. Correlates of HIV risk among injecting drug users in sixteen Ukrainian cities. AIDS Behav 2011; 15: 6574.
  • 8
    Booth R. E., Kwiatkowski C. F., Brewster J. T., Sinitsyna L., Dvoryak S. Predictors of HIV sero-status among drug injectors at three Ukraine sites. AIDS 2006; 20: 221723.
  • 9
    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). AIDS Epidemic Update 2009. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2009.
  • 10
    Ukraine Ministry of Health. Ukraine: national report on monitoring progress towards the UNGASS Declaration of Commitment, 2008–2009. 2010.
  • 11
    Balakireva O., Bondar T., Sazonova Y. Bio-behavioural HIV surveillance among IDU and their sexual partners in Ukraine in 2009. Ukraine National AIDS Conference, 17–18 November 2010.
  • 12
    O'Connell J. M., Kerr T., Li K., Tyndall M. W., Hogg R. S., Montaner J. S. et al. Requiring help injecting independently predicts incident HIV infection among injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 40: 838.
  • 13
    Platt L., Rhodes T., Lowndes C. M., Madden P., Sarang A., Mikhailova L. et al. Impact of gender and sex work on sexual and injecting risk behaviors and their association with HIV positivity among injecting drug users in an HIV epidemic in Togliatti City, Russian Federation. Sex Transm Dis 2005; 32: 60512.
  • 14
    Booth R. E., Lehman W. E., Brewster J. T., Sinitsyna L., Dvoryak S. Gender differences in sex risk behaviors among Ukraine injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007; 46: 1127.
  • 15
    Platt L., Rhodes T., Judd A., Koshkina E., Maksimova S., Latishevskaya N. et al. Effects of sex work on the prevalence of syphilis among injection drug users in 3 Russian cities. Am J Public Health 2007; 97: 47885.
  • 16
    Todd C. S., Earhart K. C., Botros B. A., Khakimov M. M., Giyasova G. M., Bautista C. T. et al. Prevalence and correlates of risky sexual behaviors among injection drug users in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. AIDS Care 2007; 19: 1229.
  • 17
    Vucinovic M., Roje D., Vucinovic Z., Capkun V., Bucat M., Banovic I. Maternal and neonatal effects of substance abuse during pregnancy: our ten-year experience. Yonsei Med J 2008; 49: 70513.
  • 18
    Fischer G. Treatment of opioid dependence in pregnant women. Addiction 2000; 95: 11414.
  • 19
    Peters V., Liu K. L., Dominguez K., Frederick T., Melville S., Hsu H. W. et al. Missed opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention among HIV-exposed infants born 1996–2000, pediatric spectrum of HIV disease cohort. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 118691.
  • 20
    Gyarmathy V. A., Giraudon I., Hedrich D., Montanari L., Guarita B., Wiessing L. Drug use and pregnancy—challenges for public health. Euro Surveill 2009; 14: 336.
  • 21
    Hulse G. K., Milne E., English D. R., Holman C. D. The relationship between maternal use of heroin and methadone and infant birth weight. Addiction 1997; 92: 15719.
  • 22
    Kennare R., Heard A., Chan A. Substance use during pregnancy: risk factors and obstetric and perinatal outcomes in South Australia. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2005; 45: 2205.
  • 23
    United Nations Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimations. Levels and trends in child mortality. Geneva; UNICEF. 2010.
  • 24
    Thorne C., Semenenko I., Pilipenko T., Malyuta R. Progress in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in Ukraine: results from a birth cohort study. BMC Infect Dis 2009; 9: 40.
  • 25
    European Collaborative Study. HIV-infected pregnant women and vertical transmission in Europe since 1986. AIDS 2001; 15: 76170.
  • 26
    European Collaborative Study. Insufficient antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Europe. Antivir Ther; in press; 2011.
  • 27
    Hillis S. D., Rakhmanova A., Vinogradova E., Voronin E., Yakovlev A., Khaldeeva N. et al. Rapid HIV testing, pregnancy, antiretroviral prophylaxis and infant abandonment in St Petersburg. Int J STD AIDS 2007; 18: 1202.
  • 28
    European Collaborative Study. The mother-to-child HIV transmission epidemic in Europe: evolving in the East and established in the West. AIDS 2006; 20: 141927.
  • 29
    Mahdavi S., Malyuta R., Semenenko I., Pilipenko T., Thorne C. Treatment and disease progression in a birth cohort of vertically HIV-1 infected children in Ukraine. BMC Pediatr 2010; 10: 85.
  • 30
    Saxton J., Malyuta R., Semenenko I., Pilipenko T., Tereshenko R., Kulakovskaya E. et al. Previous reproductive history and post-natal family planning among HIV-infected women in Ukraine. Hum Reprod 2010; 25: 236673.
  • 31
    Hepburn M. Substance abuse in pregnancy. Curr Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 14: 41925.
  • 32
    European Collaborative Study. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40: 45865.
  • 33
    Townsend C. L., Cortina-Borja M., Peckham C. S., de Ruiter A., Lyall H., Tookey P. A. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000–2006. AIDS 2008; 22: 97381.
  • 34
    Cooper E. R., Charurat M., Mofenson L., Hanson I. C., Pitt J., Diaz C. et al. Combination antiretroviral strategies for the treatment of pregnant HIV-1-infected women and prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002; 29: 48494.
  • 35
    European Mode of Delivery Collaboration. Elective caesarean-section versus vaginal delivery in prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet 1999; 353: 10359.
  • 36
    US Public Health Service Task Force. Recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. Rockville, MD: United State Department of Health and Human Services. 2008.
  • 37
    World Health Organization (WHO), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Towards Universal Access. Progress Report 2009. Geneva: WHO; 2009.
  • 38
    Mayaux M. J., Teglas J. P., Blanche S. Characteristics of HIV-infected women who do not receive preventive antiretroviral therapy in the French Perinatal Cohort. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 34: 33843.
  • 39
    Thorne C., Malyuta R., Semenenko I., Pilipenko T., Stelmah A., Posokhova S. et al. Mother-to-child transmission risk is increased among HIV-infected pregnant women in Ukraine with serological test results positive for syphilis. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47: 11145.
  • 40
    Tucker J. S., Burnam M. A., Sherbourne C. D., Kung F. Y., Gifford A. L. Substance use and mental health correlates of nonadherence to antiretroviral medications in a sample of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med 2003; 114: 57380.
  • 41
    Carrieri M. P., Chesney M. A., Spire B., Loundou A., Sobel A., Lepeu G. et al. Failure to maintain adherence to HAART in a cohort of French HIV-positive injecting drug users. Int J Behav Med 2003; 10: 114.
  • 42
    Weber R., Huber M., Rickenbach M., Furrer H., Elzi L., Hirschel B. et al. Uptake of and virological response to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected former and current injecting drug users and persons in an opiate substitution treatment programme: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. HIV Med 2009; 10: 40716.
  • 43
    Landes M., Newell M. L., Barlow P., Fiore S., Malyuta R., Martinelli P. et al. Hepatitis B or hepatitis C coinfection in HIV-infected pregnant women in Europe. HIV Med 2008; 9: 52634.
  • 44
    World Health Organization (WHO). Strategic Framework for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Infants in Europe. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office For Europe; 2004.
  • 45
    Ebner N., Rohrmeister K., Winklbaur B., Baewert A., Jagsch R., Peternell A. et al. Management of neonatal abstinence syndrome in neonates born to opioid maintained women. Drug Alcohol Depend 2007; 87: 1318.
  • 46
    Winklbaur B., Kopf N., Ebner N., Jung E., Thau K., Fischer G. Treating pregnant women dependent on opioids is not the same as treating pregnancy and opioid dependence: a knowledge synthesis for better treatment for women and neonates. Addiction 2008; 103: 142940.
  • 47
    Pinto S. M., Dodd S., Walkinshaw S. A., Siney C., Kakkar P., Mousa H. A. Substance abuse during pregnancy: effect on pregnancy outcomes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010; 150: 13741.
  • 48
    Winklbaur B., Baewert A., Jagsch R., Rohrmeister K., Metz V., Aeschbach J. C. et al. Association between prenatal tobacco exposure and outcome of neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers. Implications for treatment. Eur Addict Res 2009; 15: 1506.
  • 49
    Khaldeeva N., Hillis S. D., Vinogradova E., Voronin E., Rakhmanova A., Yakovlev A. et al. HIV-1 seroprevalence rates in women and relinquishment of infants to the state in St Petersburg, Russia, 2002. Lancet 2003; 362: 19812.
  • 50
    Thorne C., Newell M. L., Peckham C. Social care of children born to HIV-infected mothers in Europe. European Collaborative Study. AIDS Care 1998; 10: 716.
  • 51
    Zabina H., Kissin D., Pervysheva E., Mytil A., Dudchenko O., Jamieson D. et al. Abandonment of infants by HIV-positive women in Russia and prevention measures. Reprod Health Matters 2009; 17: 16270.
  • 52
    Bailey H., Semenenko I., Pilipenko T., Malyuta R., Thorne C., the Ukrainian European Collaborative Study Group. Factors associated with abandonment of infants born to HIV-positive women: results from a Ukrainian birth cohort. AIDS Care 2010; 22: 143948.
  • 53
    Lert F., Kazatchkine M. D. Antiretroviral HIV treatment and care for injecting drug users: an evidence-based overview. Int J Drug Policy 2007; 18: 25561.
  • 54
    Lester B. M., Andreozzi L., Appiah L. Substance use during pregnancy: time for policy to catch up with research. Harm Reduct J 2004; 1: 5.
  • 55
    Bruce R. D., Dvoryak S., Sylla L., Altice F. L. HIV treatment access and scale-up for delivery of opiate substitution therapy with buprenorphine for IDUs in Ukraine—programme description and policy implications. Int J Drug Policy 2007; 18: 3268.
  • 56
    World Health Organization (WHO) Europe. Risk Factors Impacting on the Spread of HIV among Pregnant Women in the Russian Federation. Copenhagen: WHO Europe; 2007.
  • 57
    Sterne J. A., Hernan M. A., Ledergerber B., Tilling K., Weber R., Sendi P. et al. Long-term effectiveness of potent antiretroviral therapy in preventing AIDS and death: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2005; 366: 37884.
  • 58
    World Health Organization (WHO). World Health Organization Guidelines for the Psychosocially Assisted Pharmacological Treatment of Opioid Dependence. Geneva: WHO; 2009.
  • 59
    Aceijas C., Hickman M., Donoghoe M. C., Burrows D., Stuikyte R. Access and coverage of needle and syringe programmes (NSP) in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Addiction 2007; 102: 124450.
  • 60
    Strathdee S. A., Hallett T. B., Bobrova N., Rhodes T., Booth R., Abdool R. et al. HIV and risk environment for injecting drug users: the past, present, and future. Lancet 2010; 376: 26884.