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The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities
Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2011
© 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 107, Issue 3, pages 530–537, March 2012
How to Cite
Rossow, I. and Norström, T. (2012), The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities. Addiction, 107: 530–537. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03643.x
- Issue online: 8 FEB 2012
- Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 10 SEP 2011 06:03AM EST
- Submitted 15 June 2011; initial review completed 16 August 2011; final version accepted 6 September 2011
- Alcohol policy;
- closing hours;
- natural experiments;
- time–series analyses;
Aims To estimate the effect on violence of small changes in closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales, and to assess whether a possible effect is symmetrical.
Design, setting, and participants A quasi-experimental design drawing on data from 18 Norwegian cities that have changed (extended or restricted) the closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales. All changes were ≤ 2 hours.
Measurements Closing hours were measured in terms of the latest permitted hour of on-premise trading, ranging from 1 a.m. to 3 a.m. The outcome measure comprised police-reported assaults that occurred in the city centre between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. at weekends. Assaults outside the city centre during the same time window should not be affected by changes in closing hours but function as a proxy for potential confounders, and was thus included as a control variable. The data spanned the period Q1 2000–Q3 2010, yielding 774 observations.
Findings Outcomes from main analyses suggested that each 1-hour extension of closing hours was associated with a statistically significant increase of 4.8 assaults (95% CI 2.60, 6.99) per 100 000 inhabitants per quarter (i.e. an increase of about 16%). Findings indicate that the effect is symmetrical. These findings were consistent across three different modelling techniques.
Conclusion In Norway, each additional 1-hour extension to the opening times of premises selling alcohol is associated with a 16% increase in violent crime.