Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette
Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012
© 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 107, Issue 8, pages 1493–1500, August 2012
How to Cite
Vansickel, A. R., Weaver, M. F. and Eissenberg, T. (2012), Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette. Addiction, 107: 1493–1500. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03791.x
- Issue published online: 10 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 9 JAN 2012 03:26PM EST
- Submitted 14 October 2011; initial review completed 12 December 2011; final version accepted 4 January 2012
- Abuse liability;
- abuse potential;
- electronic cigarettes;
- electronic nicotine delivery device;
- multiple choice procedure;
- reinforcing effects;
- subjective effects
Aims To provide an initial abuse liability assessment of an electronic cigarette (EC) in current tobacco cigarette smokers.
Design The first of four within-subject sessions was an EC sampling session that involved six, 10-puff bouts (30 seconds inter-puff interval), each bout separated by 30 minutes. In the remaining three sessions participants made choices between 10 EC puffs and varying amounts of money, 10 EC puffs and a varying number of own brand cigarette (OB) puffs, or 10 OB puffs and varying amounts of money using the multiple-choice procedure (MCP). The MCP was completed six times at 30-minute intervals, and one choice was reinforced randomly at each trial.
Setting Clinical laboratory.
Participants Twenty current tobacco cigarette smokers.
Measurements Sampling session outcome measures included plasma nicotine, cardiovascular response and subjective effects. Choice session outcome was the cross-over value on the MCP.
Findings EC use resulted in significant nicotine delivery, tobacco abstinence symptom suppression and increased product acceptability ratings. On the MCP, participants chose to receive 10 EC puffs over an average of $1.06 or three OB puffs and chose 10 OB puffs over an average of $1.50 (P < 0.003).
Conclusions Electronic cigarettes can deliver clinically significant amounts of nicotine and reduce cigarette abstinence symptoms and appear to have lower potential for abuse relative to traditional tobacco cigarettes, at least under certain laboratory conditions.