Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational group

Authors

  • Bruno Federico,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Cassino, Cassino, Italy,
    2. Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
      Bruno Federico, Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Cassino, Via S. Angelo snc (località Folcara), 03043 Cassino (FR), Italy. E-mail: b.federico@unicas.it
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  • Johan P. Mackenbach,

    1. Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • Terje A. Eikemo,

    1. Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
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  • Anton E. Kunst

    1. Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
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Bruno Federico, Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Cassino, Via S. Angelo snc (località Folcara), 03043 Cassino (FR), Italy. E-mail: b.federico@unicas.it

ABSTRACT

Aims  To estimate the immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2005 smoke-free law on smoking prevalence, cessation and intensity both in the overall population and separately by educational level.

Design  Interrupted time–series analyses of 11 cross-sectional nationally representative surveys.

Setting  Italy, 1999–2010.

Participants  Adults aged 20–64 years.

Measurements  For each year we computed the prevalence of current smoking, the quit ratio and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day. All measures were standardized by age. Segmented linear regression analyses were performed for each smoking variable separately by sex.

Findings  Among males, smoking prevalence decreased by 2.6% (P = 0.002) and smoking cessation increased by 3.3% (P = 0.006) shortly after the ban, but both measures tended to return to pre-ban values in the following years. This occurred among both highly and low-educated males. Among low-educated females, the ban was followed by a 1.6% decrease (P = 0.120) in smoking prevalence and a 4.5% increase in quit ratios (P < 0.001). However, these favourable trends reversed over the following years. Among highly educated females, trends in smoking prevalence and cessation were not altered by the ban. Among both males and females, long-term trends in the daily number of cigarettes, which were already declining well before the implementation of the policy, changed to a minor extent.

Conclusion  The impact of the Italian smoke-free policy on smoking and inequalities in smoking was short-term. Smoke-free policies may not achieve the secondary effect of reducing smoking prevalence in the long term, and they may have limited effects on inequalities in smoking.

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