Genetic influences on developmental smoking trajectories
Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 107, Issue 9, pages 1696–1704, September 2012
How to Cite
Lessov-Schlaggar, C. N., Kristjansson, S. D., Bucholz, K. K., Heath, A. C. and Madden, P. A. F. (2012), Genetic influences on developmental smoking trajectories. Addiction, 107: 1696–1704. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03871.x
- Issue online: 2 AUG 2012
- Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 2 MAR 2012 12:00AM EST
- Submitted 12 September 2011; initial review completed 14 November 2011; final version accepted 27 February 2012
- growth mixture models;
- liability threshold models;
- smoking trajectories;
- substance use;
Aims To investigate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors on smoking trajectory membership and to test whether individual smoking trajectories represent phenotypical thresholds of increasing genetic risk along a common genetic liability dimension.
Design Prospective study of a birth cohort of female like-sex twin pairs.
Setting Participants completed diagnostic interview surveys four times from adolescence (average age 16) to young adulthood (average age 25).
Participants Female twins who had smoked ≥100 cigarettes life-time (n = 1466 regular smokers).
Measurements Number of cigarettes smoked per day during the heaviest period of smoking (two waves) or during the past 12 months (two waves).
Findings A four-trajectory class solution provided the best fit to cigarette consumption data and was characterized by low (n = 564, 38.47%), moderate (n = 366, 24.97%) and high-level smokers (n = 197, 13.44%), and smokers who increased their smoking from adolescence to young adulthood (n = 339, 23.12%). The best genetic model fit was a three-category model that comprised the low, a combined increasing + moderate and high trajectories. This trajectory categorization was heritable (72.7%), with no evidence for significant contribution from shared environmental factors.
Conclusions The way in which smoking patterns develop in adolescence has a high level of heritability.