Funding: Non external funding
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
A test of proposed new tobacco withdrawal symptoms
Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012
© 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 108, Issue 1, pages 50–59, January 2013
How to Cite
Etter, J.-F., Ussher, M. and Hughes, J. R. (2013), A test of proposed new tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Addiction, 108: 50–59. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03981.x
- Issue published online: 26 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 15 JUN 2012 08:45AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 12 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Received: 13 DEC 2011
- Epidemiological measurements;
- substance withdrawal syndrome;
- tobacco use disorder;
- validation studies
Recent studies suggest that smoking cessation may cause more withdrawal symptoms than thought previously. The widely used Minnesota Withdrawal Scale (MWS-R) was revised recently to include some of these newly described symptoms. We assessed the validity of MWS-R and other proposed self-reported measures of tobacco withdrawal symptoms.
Design and Setting
An internet survey of daily and former smokers with repeated measurements, followed by a randomized trial among the daily smokers.
Daily smokers (n = 1126) and former smokers (n = 3239).
Participants answered the original MWS (nine items), the eight additional symptoms in the MWS-R and 23 other questions on tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Daily smokers were assigned randomly to either continue to smoke for 2 weeks or to stop smoking, and they answered follow-up surveys 1, 3 and 7 days after their target quit date.
Among the 31 proposed new symptoms tested by comparing recent quitters with continuing smokers, the only withdrawal-like symptom observed was worsening of mood swings. Post-cessation change in mood swings remained statistically significant after adjustment for baseline depression, irritability, impatience, restlessness, stress or anxiety/nervousness. Also, abstinence improved sense of smell, sense of taste and sore throat. Post-cessation change in symptoms intensities did not predict relapse.
Moods swings are a symptom of tobacco withdrawal that can be validly measured and are unpleasant. In contrast, smoking cessation also has positive, immediate effects, including improved sense of smell and taste and reduced sore throat.