• 1
    Zhu S. H., Anderson C. M., Johnson C. E., Tedeschi G., Roeseler A. A centralised telephone service for tobacco cessation: the California experience. Tob Control 2000; 9: ii4855.
  • 2
    Tzelepis F., Paul C. L., Walsh R. A., McElduff P., Knight J. Proactive telephone counseling for smoking cessation: meta-analyses by recruitment channel and methodological quality. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011; 103: 922941.
  • 3
    Stead L. F., Perera R., Lancaster T. Telephone counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; (3): CD002850. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002850.pub2.
  • 4
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Telephone Quitlines: A Resource for Development, Implementation, and Evaluation, final edn. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2004.
  • 5
    North American Quitline Consortium. Results from the 2010 NAQC Annual Survey of Quitlines . 2011. Available at: (accessed 10 March 2012; archived at
  • 6
    Willett J. G., Hood N. E., Burns E. K., Swetlick J. L., Wilson S. M., Lang D. A. et al. Clinical faxed referrals to a tobacco quitline. Reach, enrollment, and participant characteristics. Am J Prev Med 2009; 36: 337340.
  • 7
    Etter J. F., Perneger T. V., Ronchi A. Distributions of smokers by stage: international comparison and association with smoking prevalence. Prev Med 1997; 26: 580585.
  • 8
    Velicer W. F., Fava J. L., Prochaska J. O., Abrams D. B., Emmons K. M., Pierce J. P. Distribution of smokers by stage in three representative samples. Prev Med 1995; 24: 401411.
  • 9
    Walsh R. A., Paul C. L., Tzelepis F., Stojanovski E. Quit smoking behaviours and intentions and hard-core smoking in New South Wales. Health Promot J Aust 2006; 17: 5460.
  • 10
    Gilbert H., Sutton S. Evaluating the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in a randomized controlled trial. Addiction 2006; 101: 590598.
  • 11
    Schulz K. F., Altman D. G., Moher D., for the CONSORT Group. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152: 726732.
  • 12
    Tzelepis F., Paul C. L., Wiggers J., Walsh R. A., Knight J., Duncan S. L. et al. A randomised controlled trial of proactive telephone counselling on cold-called smokers’ cessation rates. Tob Control 2011; 20: 4046.
  • 13
    Hughes J., Keely J., Niaura R., Ossip-Klein D., Richmond R., Swan G. Measures of abstinence in clinical trials: issues and recommendations. Nicotine Tob Res 2003; 5: 1325.
  • 14
    Tzelepis F., Paul C. L., Walsh R. A., Wiggers J., Knight J., Lecathelinais C. et al. Telephone recruitment into a randomized controlled trial of quitline support. Am J Prev Med 2009; 37: 324329.
  • 15
    SRNT Subcommittee on Biochemical Verification. Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation. Nicotine Tob Res 2002; 4: 149159.
  • 16
    Myung S. K., Park J. G., Bae W. K., Lee Y. J., Kim Y., Seo H. G. Effectiveness of proactive Quitline service and predictors of successful smoking cessation: findings from a preliminary study of Quitline service for smoking cessation in Korea. J Korean Med Sci 2008; 23: 888894.
  • 17
    Heatherton T. F., Kozlowski L. T., Frecker R. C., Fagerstrom K. O. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict 1991; 86: 11191127.
  • 18
    Stead L. F., Perera R., Bullen C., Mant D., Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; (1): CD000146. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub3.