Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers
Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012
© 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 108, Issue 2, pages 406–412, February 2013
How to Cite
Rubinstein, M. L., Shiffman, S., Moscicki, A.-B., Rait, M. A., Sen, S. and Benowitz, N. L. (2013), Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers. Addiction, 108: 406–412. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04026.x
- Issue published online: 17 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 24 JUL 2012 04:40AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 17 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 27 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Received: 27 JAN 2012
- Adolescent addiction;
- adolescent smoking;
- nicotine addiction;
- nicotine metabolism;
- nicotine metabolite ratio;
- teen smoking
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the nicotine metabolic rate and smoking behavior, including addiction, in adolescent smokers.
Baseline data from a prospective study of adolescent smoking behaviors and nicotine metabolism.
The setting was an out-patient university hospital in San Francisco.
Adolescent smokers (n = 164) aged 13–17 years old.
Participants completed self-report measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire: mFTQ). The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a phenotypic marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism, was calculated using the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3′-hydroxycotinine to cotinine-d4.
Participants reported smoking a mean of 2.86 cigarettes per day (CPD) [median = 1.78, standard deviation (SD) = 3.35] for 1.37 years (median = 1.0, SD = 1.36). Results from multivariate analyses accounting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and duration of smoking indicated that slower metabolizers smoked more CPD than faster metabolizers (the NMR was inversely related to CPD; P = 0.02). Slower metabolizers also showed greater dependence on the mFTQ (NMR was negatively associated with the mFTQ; P = 0.02).
In adolescence, slower clearance of nicotine may be associated with greater levels of addiction, perhaps mediated by a greater number of cigarettes smoked.